Chapter 13 SQL Statement Syntax

Table of Contents

13.1 Data Definition Statements
13.1.1 ALTER DATABASE Syntax
13.1.2 ALTER EVENT Syntax
13.1.3 ALTER FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.4 ALTER INSTANCE Syntax
13.1.5 ALTER LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.6 ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax
13.1.7 ALTER SERVER Syntax
13.1.8 ALTER TABLE Syntax
13.1.9 ALTER TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.10 ALTER VIEW Syntax
13.1.11 CREATE DATABASE Syntax
13.1.12 CREATE EVENT Syntax
13.1.13 CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.14 CREATE INDEX Syntax
13.1.15 CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.16 CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.17 CREATE SERVER Syntax
13.1.18 CREATE TABLE Syntax
13.1.19 CREATE TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.20 CREATE TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.21 CREATE VIEW Syntax
13.1.22 DROP DATABASE Syntax
13.1.23 DROP EVENT Syntax
13.1.24 DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.25 DROP INDEX Syntax
13.1.26 DROP LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.27 DROP PROCEDURE and DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.28 DROP SERVER Syntax
13.1.29 DROP TABLE Syntax
13.1.30 DROP TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.31 DROP TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.32 DROP VIEW Syntax
13.1.33 RENAME TABLE Syntax
13.1.34 TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax
13.2 Data Manipulation Statements
13.2.1 CALL Syntax
13.2.2 DELETE Syntax
13.2.3 DO Syntax
13.2.4 HANDLER Syntax
13.2.5 INSERT Syntax
13.2.6 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
13.2.7 LOAD XML Syntax
13.2.8 REPLACE Syntax
13.2.9 SELECT Syntax
13.2.10 Subquery Syntax
13.2.11 UPDATE Syntax
13.3 Transactional and Locking Statements
13.3.1 START TRANSACTION, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK Syntax
13.3.2 Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
13.3.3 Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
13.3.4 SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT, and RELEASE SAVEPOINT Syntax
13.3.5 LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax
13.3.6 SET TRANSACTION Syntax
13.3.7 XA Transactions
13.4 Replication Statements
13.4.1 SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
13.4.2 SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
13.4.3 SQL Statements for Controlling Group Replication
13.5 Prepared SQL Statement Syntax
13.5.1 PREPARE Syntax
13.5.2 EXECUTE Syntax
13.5.3 DEALLOCATE PREPARE Syntax
13.6 Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.1 BEGIN ... END Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.2 Statement Label Syntax
13.6.3 DECLARE Syntax
13.6.4 Variables in Stored Programs
13.6.5 Flow Control Statements
13.6.6 Cursors
13.6.7 Condition Handling
13.7 Database Administration Statements
13.7.1 Account Management Statements
13.7.2 Table Maintenance Statements
13.7.3 Plugin and User-Defined Function Statements
13.7.4 SET Syntax
13.7.5 SHOW Syntax
13.7.6 Other Administrative Statements
13.8 Utility Statements
13.8.1 DESCRIBE Syntax
13.8.2 EXPLAIN Syntax
13.8.3 HELP Syntax
13.8.4 USE Syntax

This chapter describes the syntax for the SQL statements supported by MySQL.

13.1 Data Definition Statements

13.1.1 ALTER DATABASE Syntax

ALTER {DATABASE | SCHEMA} [db_name]
    alter_specification ...
ALTER {DATABASE | SCHEMA} db_name
    UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME

alter_specification:
    [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name

ALTER DATABASE enables you to change the overall characteristics of a database. These characteristics are stored in the db.opt file in the database directory. To use ALTER DATABASE, you need the ALTER privilege on the database. ALTER SCHEMA is a synonym for ALTER DATABASE.

The database name can be omitted from the first syntax, in which case the statement applies to the default database.

National Language Characteristics

The CHARACTER SET clause changes the default database character set. The COLLATE clause changes the default database collation. Section 10.1, “Character Set Support”, discusses character set and collation names.

You can see what character sets and collations are available using, respectively, the SHOW CHARACTER SET and SHOW COLLATION statements. See Section 13.7.5.3, “SHOW CHARACTER SET Syntax”, and Section 13.7.5.4, “SHOW COLLATION Syntax”, for more information.

If you change the default character set or collation for a database, stored routines that use the database defaults must be dropped and recreated so that they use the new defaults. (In a stored routine, variables with character data types use the database defaults if the character set or collation are not specified explicitly. See Section 13.1.16, “CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax”.)

Upgrading from Versions Older than MySQL 5.1

The syntax that includes the UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME clause updates the name of the directory associated with the database to use the encoding implemented in MySQL 5.1 for mapping database names to database directory names (see Section 9.2.3, “Mapping of Identifiers to File Names”). This clause is for use under these conditions:

  • It is intended when upgrading MySQL to 5.1 or later from older versions.

  • It is intended to update a database directory name to the current encoding format if the name contains special characters that need encoding.

  • The statement is used by mysqlcheck (as invoked by mysql_upgrade).

For example, if a database in MySQL 5.0 has the name a-b-c, the name contains instances of the - (dash) character. In MySQL 5.0, the database directory is also named a-b-c, which is not necessarily safe for all file systems. In MySQL 5.1 and later, the same database name is encoded as a@002db@002dc to produce a file system-neutral directory name.

When a MySQL installation is upgraded to MySQL 5.1 or later from an older version,the server displays a name such as a-b-c (which is in the old format) as #mysql50#a-b-c, and you must refer to the name using the #mysql50# prefix. Use UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME in this case to explicitly tell the server to re-encode the database directory name to the current encoding format:

ALTER DATABASE `#mysql50#a-b-c` UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME;

After executing this statement, you can refer to the database as a-b-c without the special #mysql50# prefix.

Note

The UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME clause is deprecated in MySQL 5.7.6 and will be removed in a future version of MySQL. If it is necessary to convert MySQL 5.0 database or table names, a workaround is to upgrade a MySQL 5.0 installation to MySQL 5.1 before upgrading to a more recent release.

13.1.2 ALTER EVENT Syntax

ALTER
    [DEFINER = { user | CURRENT_USER }]
    EVENT event_name
    [ON SCHEDULE schedule]
    [ON COMPLETION [NOT] PRESERVE]
    [RENAME TO new_event_name]
    [ENABLE | DISABLE | DISABLE ON SLAVE]
    [COMMENT 'comment']
    [DO event_body]

The ALTER EVENT statement changes one or more of the characteristics of an existing event without the need to drop and recreate it. The syntax for each of the DEFINER, ON SCHEDULE, ON COMPLETION, COMMENT, ENABLE / DISABLE, and DO clauses is exactly the same as when used with CREATE EVENT. (See Section 13.1.12, “CREATE EVENT Syntax”.)

Any user can alter an event defined on a database for which that user has the EVENT privilege. When a user executes a successful ALTER EVENT statement, that user becomes the definer for the affected event.

ALTER EVENT works only with an existing event:

mysql> ALTER EVENT no_such_event 
     >     ON SCHEDULE 
     >       EVERY '2:3' DAY_HOUR;
ERROR 1517 (HY000): Unknown event 'no_such_event'

In each of the following examples, assume that the event named myevent is defined as shown here:

CREATE EVENT myevent
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 6 HOUR
    COMMENT 'A sample comment.'
    DO
      UPDATE myschema.mytable SET mycol = mycol + 1;

The following statement changes the schedule for myevent from once every six hours starting immediately to once every twelve hours, starting four hours from the time the statement is run:

ALTER EVENT myevent
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 12 HOUR
    STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 4 HOUR;

It is possible to change multiple characteristics of an event in a single statement. This example changes the SQL statement executed by myevent to one that deletes all records from mytable; it also changes the schedule for the event such that it executes once, one day after this ALTER EVENT statement is run.

ALTER EVENT myevent
    ON SCHEDULE
      AT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 1 DAY
    DO
      TRUNCATE TABLE myschema.mytable;

Specify the options in an ALTER EVENT statement only for those characteristics that you want to change; omitted options keep their existing values. This includes any default values for CREATE EVENT such as ENABLE.

To disable myevent, use this ALTER EVENT statement:

ALTER EVENT myevent
    DISABLE;

The ON SCHEDULE clause may use expressions involving built-in MySQL functions and user variables to obtain any of the timestamp or interval values which it contains. You cannot use stored routines or user-defined functions in such expressions, and you cannot use any table references; however, you can use SELECT FROM DUAL. This is true for both ALTER EVENT and CREATE EVENT statements. References to stored routines, user-defined functions, and tables in such cases are specifically not permitted, and fail with an error (see Bug #22830).

Although an ALTER EVENT statement that contains another ALTER EVENT statement in its DO clause appears to succeed, when the server attempts to execute the resulting scheduled event, the execution fails with an error.

To rename an event, use the ALTER EVENT statement's RENAME TO clause. This statement renames the event myevent to yourevent:

ALTER EVENT myevent
    RENAME TO yourevent;

You can also move an event to a different database using ALTER EVENT ... RENAME TO ... and db_name.event_name notation, as shown here:

ALTER EVENT olddb.myevent
    RENAME TO newdb.myevent;

To execute the previous statement, the user executing it must have the EVENT privilege on both the olddb and newdb databases.

Note

There is no RENAME EVENT statement.

The value DISABLE ON SLAVE is used on a replication slave instead of ENABLE or DISABLE to indicate an event that was created on the master and replicated to the slave, but that is not executed on the slave. Normally, DISABLE ON SLAVE is set automatically as required; however, there are some circumstances under which you may want or need to change it manually. See Section 16.4.1.12, “Replication of Invoked Features”, for more information.

13.1.3 ALTER FUNCTION Syntax

ALTER FUNCTION func_name [characteristic ...]

characteristic:
    COMMENT 'string'
  | LANGUAGE SQL
  | { CONTAINS SQL | NO SQL | READS SQL DATA | MODIFIES SQL DATA }
  | SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }

This statement can be used to change the characteristics of a stored function. More than one change may be specified in an ALTER FUNCTION statement. However, you cannot change the parameters or body of a stored function using this statement; to make such changes, you must drop and re-create the function using DROP FUNCTION and CREATE FUNCTION.

You must have the ALTER ROUTINE privilege for the function. (That privilege is granted automatically to the function creator.) If binary logging is enabled, the ALTER FUNCTION statement might also require the SUPER privilege, as described in Section 23.7, “Binary Logging of Stored Programs”.

13.1.4 ALTER INSTANCE Syntax

ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY

ALTER INSTANCE, introduced in MySQL 5.7.11, defines actions applicable to a MySQL server instance.

The ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY statement is used to rotate the master encryption key used for InnoDB tablespace encryption. A keyring plugin must be loaded to use this statement. For information about keyring plugins, see Section 6.5.4, “The MySQL Keyring”. Key rotation requires the SUPER privilege.

ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY supports concurrent DML. However, it cannot be run concurrently with CREATE TABLE ... ENCRYPTION or ALTER TABLE ... ENCRYPTION operations, and locks are taken to prevent conflicts that could arise from concurrent execution of these statements. If one of the conflicting statements is running, it must complete before another can proceed.

ALTER INSTANCE actions are written to the binary log so that they can be executed on replicated servers.

For additional ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY usage information, see Section 14.7.10, “InnoDB Tablespace Encryption”. For information about keyring plugins, see Section 6.5.4, “The MySQL Keyring”.

13.1.5 ALTER LOGFILE GROUP Syntax

ALTER LOGFILE GROUP logfile_group
    ADD UNDOFILE 'file_name'
    [INITIAL_SIZE [=] size]
    [WAIT]
    ENGINE [=] engine_name

This statement adds an UNDO file named 'file_name' to an existing log file group logfile_group. An ALTER LOGFILE GROUP statement has one and only one ADD UNDOFILE clause. No DROP UNDOFILE clause is currently supported.

Note

All NDB Cluster Disk Data objects share the same namespace. This means that each Disk Data object must be uniquely named (and not merely each Disk Data object of a given type). For example, you cannot have a tablespace and an undo log file with the same name, or an undo log file and a data file with the same name.

The optional INITIAL_SIZE parameter sets the UNDO file's initial size in bytes; if not specified, the initial size defaults to 134217728 (128 MB). You may optionally follow size with a one-letter abbreviation for an order of magnitude, similar to those used in my.cnf. Generally, this is one of the letters M (megabytes) or G (gigabytes). (Bug #13116514, Bug #16104705, Bug #62858)

On 32-bit systems, the maximum supported value for INITIAL_SIZE is 4294967296 (4 GB). (Bug #29186)

The minimum allowed value for INITIAL_SIZE is 1048576 (1 MB). (Bug #29574)

Note

WAIT is parsed but otherwise ignored. This keyword currently has no effect, and is intended for future expansion.

The ENGINE parameter (required) determines the storage engine which is used by this log file group, with engine_name being the name of the storage engine. Currently, the only accepted values for engine_name are NDBCLUSTER and NDB. The two values are equivalent.

Here is an example, which assumes that the log file group lg_3 has already been created using CREATE LOGFILE GROUP (see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax”):

ALTER LOGFILE GROUP lg_3
    ADD UNDOFILE 'undo_10.dat'
    INITIAL_SIZE=32M
    ENGINE=NDBCLUSTER;

When ALTER LOGFILE GROUP is used with ENGINE = NDBCLUSTER (alternatively, ENGINE = NDB), an UNDO log file is created on each NDB Cluster data node. You can verify that the UNDO files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table. For example:

mysql> SELECT FILE_NAME, LOGFILE_GROUP_NUMBER, EXTRA
    -> FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
    -> WHERE LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME = 'lg_3';
+-------------+----------------------+----------------+
| FILE_NAME   | LOGFILE_GROUP_NUMBER | EXTRA          |
+-------------+----------------------+----------------+
| newdata.dat |                    0 | CLUSTER_NODE=3 |
| newdata.dat |                    0 | CLUSTER_NODE=4 |
| undo_10.dat |                   11 | CLUSTER_NODE=3 |
| undo_10.dat |                   11 | CLUSTER_NODE=4 |
+-------------+----------------------+----------------+
4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

(See Section 24.8, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table”.)

Memory used for UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE comes from the global pool whose size is determined by the value of the SharedGlobalMemory data node configuration parameter. This includes any default value implied for this option by the setting of the InitialLogFileGroup data node configuration parameter.

ALTER LOGFILE GROUP is useful only with Disk Data storage for NDB Cluster. For more information, see Section 21.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”.

13.1.6 ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax

ALTER PROCEDURE proc_name [characteristic ...]

characteristic:
    COMMENT 'string'
  | LANGUAGE SQL
  | { CONTAINS SQL | NO SQL | READS SQL DATA | MODIFIES SQL DATA }
  | SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }

This statement can be used to change the characteristics of a stored procedure. More than one change may be specified in an ALTER PROCEDURE statement. However, you cannot change the parameters or body of a stored procedure using this statement; to make such changes, you must drop and re-create the procedure using DROP PROCEDURE and CREATE PROCEDURE.

You must have the ALTER ROUTINE privilege for the procedure. By default, that privilege is granted automatically to the procedure creator. This behavior can be changed by disabling the automatic_sp_privileges system variable. See Section 23.2.2, “Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges”.

13.1.7 ALTER SERVER Syntax

ALTER SERVER  server_name
    OPTIONS (option [, option] ...)

Alters the server information for server_name, adjusting any of the options permitted in the CREATE SERVER statement. The corresponding fields in the mysql.servers table are updated accordingly. This statement requires the SUPER privilege.

For example, to update the USER option:

ALTER SERVER s OPTIONS (USER 'sally');

ALTER SERVER causes an implicit commit. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

ALTER SERVER is not written to the binary log, regardless of the logging format that is in use.

13.1.8 ALTER TABLE Syntax

ALTER TABLE tbl_name
    [alter_specification [, alter_specification] ...]
    [partition_options]

alter_specification:
    table_options
  | ADD [COLUMN] col_name column_definition
        [FIRST | AFTER col_name]
  | ADD [COLUMN] (col_name column_definition,...)
  | ADD {INDEX|KEY} [index_name]
        [index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
  | ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] PRIMARY KEY
        [index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
  | ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]]
        UNIQUE [INDEX|KEY] [index_name]
        [index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
  | ADD FULLTEXT [INDEX|KEY] [index_name]
        (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
  | ADD SPATIAL [INDEX|KEY] [index_name]
        (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ...
  | ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]]
        FOREIGN KEY [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
        reference_definition
  | ALGORITHM [=] {DEFAULT|INPLACE|COPY}
  | ALTER [COLUMN] col_name {SET DEFAULT literal | DROP DEFAULT}
  | CHANGE [COLUMN] old_col_name new_col_name column_definition
        [FIRST|AFTER col_name]
  | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name [COLLATE [=] collation_name]
  | CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET charset_name [COLLATE collation_name]
  | {DISABLE|ENABLE} KEYS
  | {DISCARD|IMPORT} TABLESPACE
  | DROP [COLUMN] col_name
  | DROP {INDEX|KEY} index_name
  | DROP PRIMARY KEY
  | DROP FOREIGN KEY fk_symbol
  | FORCE
  | LOCK [=] {DEFAULT|NONE|SHARED|EXCLUSIVE}
  | MODIFY [COLUMN] col_name column_definition
        [FIRST | AFTER col_name]
  | ORDER BY col_name [, col_name] ...
  | RENAME {INDEX|KEY} old_index_name TO new_index_name
  | RENAME [TO|AS] new_tbl_name
  | {WITHOUT|WITH} VALIDATION
  | ADD PARTITION (partition_definition)
  | DROP PARTITION partition_names
  | DISCARD PARTITION {partition_names | ALL} TABLESPACE
  | IMPORT PARTITION {partition_names | ALL} TABLESPACE
  | TRUNCATE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | COALESCE PARTITION number
  | REORGANIZE PARTITION partition_names INTO (partition_definitions)
  | EXCHANGE PARTITION partition_name WITH TABLE tbl_name [{WITH|WITHOUT} VALIDATION]
  | ANALYZE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | CHECK PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | OPTIMIZE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | REBUILD PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | REPAIR PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | REMOVE PARTITIONING
  | UPGRADE PARTITIONING

index_col_name:
    col_name [(length)] [ASC | DESC]

index_type:
    USING {BTREE | HASH}

index_option:
    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | index_type
  | WITH PARSER parser_name
  | COMMENT 'string'

table_options:
    table_option [[,] table_option] ...

table_option:
    AUTO_INCREMENT [=] value
  | AVG_ROW_LENGTH [=] value
  | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | CHECKSUM [=] {0 | 1}
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name
  | COMMENT [=] 'string'
  | COMPRESSION [=] {'ZLIB'|'LZ4'|'NONE'}
  | CONNECTION [=] 'connect_string'
  | {DATA|INDEX} DIRECTORY [=] 'absolute path to directory'
  | DELAY_KEY_WRITE [=] {0 | 1}
  | ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}
  | ENGINE [=] engine_name
  | INSERT_METHOD [=] { NO | FIRST | LAST }
  | KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | MAX_ROWS [=] value
  | MIN_ROWS [=] value
  | PACK_KEYS [=] {0 | 1 | DEFAULT}
  | PASSWORD [=] 'string'
  | ROW_FORMAT [=] {DEFAULT|DYNAMIC|FIXED|COMPRESSED|REDUNDANT|COMPACT}
  | STATS_AUTO_RECALC [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_PERSISTENT [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES [=] value
  | TABLESPACE tablespace_name [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY|DEFAULT}]
  | UNION [=] (tbl_name[,tbl_name]...)

partition_options:
    (see CREATE TABLE options)

ALTER TABLE changes the structure of a table. For example, you can add or delete columns, create or destroy indexes, change the type of existing columns, or rename columns or the table itself. You can also change characteristics such as the storage engine used for the table or the table comment.

There are several additional aspects to the ALTER TABLE statement, described under the following topics in this section:

Table Options

table_options signifies table options of the kind that can be used in the CREATE TABLE statement, such as ENGINE, AUTO_INCREMENT, AVG_ROW_LENGTH, MAX_ROWS, ROW_FORMAT, or TABLESPACE.

For descriptions of all table options, see Section 13.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”. However, ALTER TABLE ignores DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY when given as table options. ALTER TABLE permits them only as partitioning options, and, as of MySQL 5.7.17, requires that you have the FILE privilege.

Use of table options with ALTER TABLE provides a convenient way of altering single table characteristics. For example:

  • If t1 is currently not an InnoDB table, this statement changes its storage engine to InnoDB:

    ALTER TABLE t1 ENGINE = InnoDB;
    
  • To change the InnoDB table to use compressed row-storage format:

    ALTER TABLE t1 ROW_FORMAT = COMPRESSED;
    
  • If the InnoDB tablespace encryption feature is enabled (see Section 14.7.10, “InnoDB Tablespace Encryption”), encryption for t1 can be enabled or disabled like this:

    ALTER TABLE t1 ENCRYPTION='Y';
    ALTER TABLE t1 ENCRYPTION='N';
    
  • To reset the current auto-increment value:

    ALTER TABLE t1 AUTO_INCREMENT = 13;
    

    You cannot reset the counter to a value less than or equal to the value that is currently in use. For both InnoDB and MyISAM, if the value is less than or equal to the maximum value currently in the AUTO_INCREMENT column, the value is reset to the current maximum AUTO_INCREMENT column value plus one.

  • To change the default table character set:

    ALTER TABLE t1 CHARACTER SET = utf8;
    

    See also Changing the Character Set.

  • To add (or change) a table comment:

    ALTER TABLE t1 COMMENT = 'New table comment';
    
  • Use ALTER TABLE with the TABLESPACE option to move non-partitioned InnoDB tables between existing general tablespaces, file-per-table tablespaces, and the system tablespace. See Moving Non-Partitioned Tables Between Tablespaces Using ALTER TABLE.

    • For partitioned tables, ALTER TABLE tbl_name TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name only modifies the default tablespace. It does not move partitions from one tablespace to another. To move table partitions, you must move each partition using ALTER TABLE tbl_name REORGANIZE PARTITION. See Moving Table Partitions Between Tablespaces Using ALTER TABLE.

    • ALTER TABLE ... TABLESPACE operations always cause a full table rebuild, even if the TABLESPACE attribute has not changed from its previous value.

    • ALTER TABLE ... TABLESPACE syntax does not support moving a table from a temporary tablespace to a persistent tablespace.

    • The DATA DIRECTORY clause, which is supported with CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE, is not supported with ALTER TABLE ... TABLESPACE, and is ignored if specified.

    • For more information about the capabilities and limitations of the TABLESPACE option, see CREATE TABLE.

  • MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.2 and later supports setting NDB_TABLE options for controlling a table's partition balance (fragment count type), read-from-any-replica capability, full replication, or any combination of these, as part of the table comment for an ALTER TABLE statement in the same manner as for CREATE TABLE, as shown in this example:

    ALTER TABLE t1 COMMENT = "NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE";
    

    Bear in mind that ALTER TABLE ... COMMENT ... discards any existing comment for the table. See Setting NDB_TABLE options, for additional information and examples.

To verify that the table options were changed as intended, use SHOW CREATE TABLE, or query the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES table.

Performance and Storage Considerations

Some ALTER TABLE operations can be performed in place without making a temporary copy of the table. In-place operations tend to be very fast.

Other ALTER TABLE operations perform the alteration on a temporary copy of the table, which can require more time, particularly for large tables.

In-place ALTER TABLE operations that do not require creating a temporary copy of the original table include:

  • ALTER TABLE operations on InnoDB tables that are supported by the InnoDB online DDL feature. For an overview of supported operations, see Section 14.13.1, “Online DDL Overview”. For information about performance and concurrency of online DDL operations, see Section 14.13.2, “Online DDL Performance, Concurrency, and Space Requirements”.

  • ALTER TABLE tbl_name RENAME TO new_tbl_name. When run without other options, MySQL renames files that correspond to the table tbl_name without making a copy. (You can also use the RENAME TABLE statement to rename tables. See Section 13.1.33, “RENAME TABLE Syntax”.) Privileges granted specifically for the renamed table are not migrated to the new name. They must be changed manually.

  • Alterations that modify only table metadata and not table data are immediate because the server only needs to alter the table .frm file, not touch table contents. The following changes are made in this way:

    • Renaming a column.

    • Changing the default value of a column (except for NDB tables).

    • Changing the definition of an ENUM or SET column by adding new enumeration or set members to the end of the list of valid member values, as long as the storage size of the data type does not change. For example, adding a member to a SET column that has 8 members changes the required storage per value from 1 byte to 2 bytes; this requires a table copy. Adding members in the middle of the list causes renumbering of existing members, which requires a table copy.

  • Renaming an index.

  • Adding or dropping an index, for InnoDB and NDB. See Section 14.13.1, “Online DDL Overview”.

  • For NDB tables, operations that add and drop indexes on variable-width columns occur online, without table copying and without blocking concurrent DML actions for most of their duration. See Section 13.1.8.2, “ALTER TABLE Online Operations in NDB Cluster”.

Specifying ALGORITHM=INPLACE makes the operation use the in-place technique for clauses and storage engines that support it, and fail with an error otherwise, thus avoiding a lengthy table copy if you try altering a table that uses a different storage engine than you expect.

ALTER TABLE operations that are not performed in place make a temporary copy of the original table. MySQL waits for other operations that are modifying the table, then proceeds. It incorporates the alteration into the copy, deletes the original table, and renames the new one. While ALTER TABLE is executing, the original table is readable by other sessions (with the exception noted shortly). Updates and writes to the table that begin after the ALTER TABLE operation begins are stalled until the new table is ready, then are automatically redirected to the new table without any failed updates. The temporary copy of the original table is created in the database directory of the new table. This can differ from the database directory of the original table for ALTER TABLE operations that rename the table to a different database.

The exception referred to earlier is that ALTER TABLE blocks reads (not just writes) at the point where it is ready to install a new version of the table .frm file, discard the old file, and clear outdated table structures from the table and table definition caches. At this point, it must acquire an exclusive lock. To do so, it waits for current readers to finish, and blocks new reads (and writes).

For MyISAM tables, you can speed up index re-creation (the slowest part of the alteration process) by setting the myisam_sort_buffer_size system variable to a high value.

For InnoDB tables, a table-copying ALTER TABLE operation on table that resides in a shared tablespace such as a general tablespace or the system tablespace can increase the amount of space used by the tablespace. Such operations require as much additional space as the data in the table plus indexes. For a table that resides in a shared tablespace, the additional space used during a table-copying ALTER TABLE operation is not released back to the operating system as it is for a table that resides in a file-per-table tablespace.

To force use of the table-copy method for an ALTER TABLE operation that would otherwise not use it, set the old_alter_table system variable to ON, or specify ALGORITHM=COPY as one of the alter_specification clauses. If there is a conflict between the old_alter_table setting and an ALGORITHM clause with a value other than DEFAULT, the ALGORITHM clause takes precedence.

Specifying ALGORITHM=DEFAULT is the same a specifying no ALGORITHM clause at all, in which case ALGORITM=INPLACE is used if supported by the storage engine. Otherwise, ALGORITHM=COPY is used.

An ALTER TABLE operation run with the ALGORITHM=COPY clause prevents concurrent DML operations. Concurrent queries are still allowed. That is, a table-copying operation always includes at least the concurrency restrictions of LOCK=SHARED (allow queries but not DML). You can further restrict concurrency for such operations by specifying LOCK=EXCLUSIVE, which prevents DML and queries.

As of MySQL 5.7.4, ALTER TABLE upgrades MySQL 5.5 temporal columns to 5.6 format for ADD COLUMN, CHANGE COLUMN, MODIFY COLUMN, ADD INDEX, and FORCE operations. This conversion cannot be done using the INPLACE algorithm because the table must be rebuilt, so specifying ALGORITHM=INPLACE in these cases results in an error. Specify ALGORITHM=COPY if necessary.

If an ALTER TABLE operation on a multicolumn index used to partition a table by KEY changes the order of the columns, it can only be performed using ALGORITHM=COPY.

The WITHOUT VALIDATION and WITH VALIDATION clauses affect whether ALTER TABLE performs an in-place operation for virtual generated column modifications. See Section 13.1.8.3, “ALTER TABLE and Generated Columns”.

NDB Cluster formerly supported online ALTER TABLE operations using the ONLINE and OFFLINE keywords. These keywords are no longer supported; their use causes a syntax error. MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 (and later) supports online operations using the same ALGORITHM=INPLACE syntax used with the standard MySQL Server. See Section 13.1.8.2, “ALTER TABLE Online Operations in NDB Cluster”, for more information.

ALTER TABLE with DISCARD ... PARTITION ... TABLESPACE or IMPORT ... PARTITION ... TABLESPACE does not create any temporary tables or temporary partition files.

ALTER TABLE with ADD PARTITION, DROP PARTITION, COALESCE PARTITION, REBUILD PARTITION, or REORGANIZE PARTITION does not create temporary tables (except when used with NDB tables); however, these operations can and do create temporary partition files.

ADD or DROP operations for RANGE or LIST partitions are immediate operations or nearly so. ADD or COALESCE operations for HASH or KEY partitions copy data between all partitions, unless LINEAR HASH or LINEAR KEY was used; this is effectively the same as creating a new table, although the ADD or COALESCE operation is performed partition by partition. REORGANIZE operations copy only changed partitions and do not touch unchanged ones.

Locking and Concurrency Control

To control the level of concurrent reading and writing of the table while it is being altered, use the LOCK clause. Specifying a non-default value for this clause enables you to require a certain amount of concurrent access or exclusivity during the alter operation, and halts the operation if the requested degree of locking is not available. The parameters for the LOCK clause are:

  • LOCK = DEFAULT
    

    Maximum level of concurrency for the given ALGORITHM clause (if any) and ALTER TABLE operation: Permit concurrent reads and writes if supported. If not, permit concurrent reads if supported. If not, enforce exclusive access.

  • LOCK = NONE
    

    If supported, permit concurrent reads and writes. Otherwise, an error occurs.

  • LOCK = SHARED
    

    If supported, permit concurrent reads but block writes. Writes are blocked even if concurrent writes are supported by the storage engine for the given ALGORITHM clause (if any) and ALTER TABLE operation. If concurrent reads are not supported, an error occurs.

  • LOCK = EXCLUSIVE
    

    Enforce exclusive access. This is done even if concurrent reads/writes are supported by the storage engine for the given ALGORITHM clause (if any) and ALTER TABLE operation.

Adding and Dropping Columns

Use ADD to add new columns to a table, and DROP to remove existing columns.

DROP col_name is a MySQL extension to standard SQL.

To add a column at a specific position within a table row, use FIRST or AFTER col_name. The default is to add the column last.

If a table contains only one column, the column cannot be dropped. If what you intend is to remove the table, use the DROP TABLE statement instead.

If columns are dropped from a table, the columns are also removed from any index of which they are a part. If all columns that make up an index are dropped, the index is dropped as well.

Renaming, Redefining, and Reordering Columns

The CHANGE, MODIFY, and ALTER clauses enable the names and definitions of existing columns to be altered. They have these comparative characteristics:

  • CHANGE:

    • Can rename a column and change its definition, or both.

    • Has more capability than MODIFY, but at the expense of convenience for some operations. CHANGE requires naming the column twice if not renaming it.

    • With FIRST or AFTER, can reorder columns.

  • MODIFY:

    • Can change a column definition but not its name.

    • More convenient than CHANGE to change a column definition without renaming it.

    • With FIRST or AFTER, can reorder columns.

  • ALTER: Used only to change a column default value.

CHANGE is a MySQL extension to standard SQL. MODIFY is a MySQL extension for Oracle compatibility.

To alter a column to change both its name and definition, use CHANGE, specifying the old and new names and the new definition. For example, to rename an INT NOT NULL column from a to b and change its definition to use the BIGINT data type while retaining the NOT NULL attribute, do this:

ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE a b BIGINT NOT NULL;

To change a column definition but not its name, use CHANGE or MODIFY. With CHANGE, the syntax requires two column names, so you must specify the same name twice to leave the name unchanged. For example, to change the definition of column b, do this:

ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE b b INT NOT NULL;

MODIFY is more convenient to change the definition without changing the name because it requires the column name only once:

ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY b INT NOT NULL;

To change a column name but not its definition, use CHANGE. The syntax requires a column definition, so to leave the definition unchanged, you must respecify the definition the column currently has. For example, to rename an INT NOT NULL column from b to a, do this:

ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE b a INT NOT NULL;

For column definition changes using CHANGE or MODIFY, the definition must include the data type and all attributes that should apply to the new column, other than index attributes such as PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE. Attributes present in the original definition but not specified for the new definition are not carried forward. Suppose that a column col1 is defined as INT UNSIGNED DEFAULT 1 COMMENT 'my column' and you modify the column as follows, intending to change only INT to BIGINT:

ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY col1 BIGINT;

That statement changes the data type from INT to BIGINT, but it also drops the UNSIGNED, DEFAULT, and COMMENT attributes. To retain them, the statement must include them explicitly:

ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY col1 BIGINT UNSIGNED DEFAULT 1 COMMENT 'my column';

For data type changes using CHANGE or MODIFY, MySQL tries to convert existing column values to the new type as well as possible.

Warning

This conversion may result in alteration of data. For example, if you shorten a string column, values may be truncated. To prevent the operation from succeeding if conversions to the new data type would result in loss of data, enable strict SQL mode before using ALTER TABLE (see Section 5.1.8, “Server SQL Modes”).

If you use CHANGE or MODIFY to shorten a column for which an index exists on the column, and the resulting column length is less than the index length, MySQL shortens the index automatically.

For columns renamed by CHANGE, MySQL automatically renames these references to the renamed column:

  • Indexes that refer to the old column, including indexes and disabled MyISAM indexes.

  • Foreign keys that refer to the old column.

For columns renamed by CHANGE, MySQL does not automatically rename these references to the renamed column:

  • Generated column and partition expressions that refer to the renamed column. You must use CHANGE to redefine such expressions in the same ALTER TABLE statement as the one that renames the column.

  • Views and stored programs that refer to the renamed column. You must manually alter the definition of these objects to refer to the new column name.

To reorder columns within a table, use FIRST and AFTER in CHANGE or MODIFY operations.

ALTER ... SET DEFAULT or ALTER ... DROP DEFAULT specify a new default value for a column or remove the old default value, respectively. If the old default is removed and the column can be NULL, the new default is NULL. If the column cannot be NULL, MySQL assigns a default value as described in Section 11.7, “Data Type Default Values”.

Primary Keys and Indexes

DROP PRIMARY KEY drops the primary key. If there is no primary key, an error occurs. For information about the performance characteristics of primary keys, especially for InnoDB tables, see Section 8.3.2, “Primary Key Optimization”.

If you add a UNIQUE INDEX or PRIMARY KEY to a table, MySQL stores it before any nonunique index to permit detection of duplicate keys as early as possible.

DROP INDEX removes an index. This is a MySQL extension to standard SQL. See Section 13.1.25, “DROP INDEX Syntax”. To determine index names, use SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name.

Some storage engines permit you to specify an index type when creating an index. The syntax for the index_type specifier is USING type_name. For details about USING, see Section 13.1.14, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”. The preferred position is after the column list. Support for use of the option before the column list will be removed in a future MySQL release.

index_option values specify additional options for an index. For details about permissible index_option values, see Section 13.1.14, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”.

RENAME INDEX old_index_name TO new_index_name renames an index. This is a MySQL extension to standard SQL. The content of the table remains unchanged. old_index_name must be the name of an existing index in the table that is not dropped by the same ALTER TABLE statement. new_index_name is the new index name, which cannot duplicate the name of an index in the resulting table after changes have been applied. Neither index name can be PRIMARY.

If you use ALTER TABLE on a MyISAM table, all nonunique indexes are created in a separate batch (as for REPAIR TABLE). This should make ALTER TABLE much faster when you have many indexes.

For MyISAM tables, key updating can be controlled explicitly. Use ALTER TABLE ... DISABLE KEYS to tell MySQL to stop updating nonunique indexes. Then use ALTER TABLE ... ENABLE KEYS to re-create missing indexes. MyISAM does this with a special algorithm that is much faster than inserting keys one by one, so disabling keys before performing bulk insert operations should give a considerable speedup. Using ALTER TABLE ... DISABLE KEYS requires the INDEX privilege in addition to the privileges mentioned earlier.

While the nonunique indexes are disabled, they are ignored for statements such as SELECT and EXPLAIN that otherwise would use them.

After an ALTER TABLE statement, it may be necessary to run ANALYZE TABLE to update index cardinality information. See Section 13.7.5.22, “SHOW INDEX Syntax”.

Foreign Keys

The FOREIGN KEY and REFERENCES clauses are supported by the InnoDB and NDB storage engines, which implement ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY [index_name] (...) REFERENCES ... (...). See Section 1.8.3.2, “FOREIGN KEY Constraints”; for information specific to InnoDB, see Section 14.8.1.6, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

For other storage engines, the clauses are parsed but ignored. The CHECK clause is parsed but ignored by all storage engines. See Section 13.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”. The reason for accepting but ignoring syntax clauses is for compatibility, to make it easier to port code from other SQL servers, and to run applications that create tables with references. See Section 1.8.2, “MySQL Differences from Standard SQL”.

For ALTER TABLE, unlike CREATE TABLE, ADD FOREIGN KEY ignores index_name if given and uses an automatically generated foreign key name. As a workaround, include the CONSTRAINT clause to specify the foreign key name:

ADD CONSTRAINT name FOREIGN KEY (....) ...
Important

MySQL silently ignores inline REFERENCES specifications, where the references are defined as part of the column specification. MySQL accepts only REFERENCES clauses defined as part of a separate FOREIGN KEY specification.

Note

Partitioned InnoDB tables do not support foreign keys. This restriction does not apply to NDB tables, including those explicitly partitioned by [LINEAR] KEY. For more information, see Section 22.6.2, “Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines”.

MySQL Server and NDB Cluster both support the use of ALTER TABLE to drop foreign keys:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name DROP FOREIGN KEY fk_symbol;

Adding and dropping a foreign key in the same ALTER TABLE statement is supported for ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE but not for ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=COPY.

The server prohibits changes to foreign key columns that have the potential to cause loss of referential integrity. It also prohibits changes to the data type of such columns that may be unsafe. For example, changing VARCHAR(20) to VARCHAR(30) is permitted, but changing it to VARCHAR(1024) is not because that alters the number of length bytes required to store individual values. A workaround is to use ALTER TABLE ... DROP FOREIGN KEY before changing the column definition and ALTER TABLE ... ADD FOREIGN KEY afterward.

ALTER TABLE tbl_name RENAME new_tbl_name changes internally generated foreign key constraint names and user-defined foreign key constraint names that contain the string tbl_name_ibfk_ to reflect the new table name. InnoDB interprets foreign key constraint names that contain the string tbl_name_ibfk_ as internally generated names.

Changing the Character Set

To change the table default character set and all character columns (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT) to a new character set, use a statement like this:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET charset_name;

The statement also changes the collation of all character columns. If you specify no COLLATE clause to indicate which collation to use, the statement uses default collation for the character set. If this collation is inappropriate for the intended table use (for example, if it would change from a case-sensitive collation to a case-insensitive collation), specify a collation explicitly.

For a column that has a data type of VARCHAR or one of the TEXT types, CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET changes the data type as necessary to ensure that the new column is long enough to store as many characters as the original column. For example, a TEXT column has two length bytes, which store the byte-length of values in the column, up to a maximum of 65,535. For a latin1 TEXT column, each character requires a single byte, so the column can store up to 65,535 characters. If the column is converted to utf8, each character might require up to three bytes, for a maximum possible length of 3 × 65,535 = 196,605 bytes. That length does not fit in a TEXT column's length bytes, so MySQL converts the data type to MEDIUMTEXT, which is the smallest string type for which the length bytes can record a value of 196,605. Similarly, a VARCHAR column might be converted to MEDIUMTEXT.

To avoid data type changes of the type just described, do not use CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET. Instead, use MODIFY to change individual columns. For example:

ALTER TABLE t MODIFY latin1_text_col TEXT CHARACTER SET utf8;
ALTER TABLE t MODIFY latin1_varchar_col VARCHAR(M) CHARACTER SET utf8;

If you specify CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET binary, the CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns are converted to their corresponding binary string types (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB). This means that the columns no longer will have a character set attribute and a subsequent CONVERT TO operation will not apply to them.

If charset_name is DEFAULT, the database character set is used.

Warning

The CONVERT TO operation converts column values between the original and named character sets. This is not what you want if you have a column in one character set (like latin1) but the stored values actually use some other, incompatible character set (like utf8). In this case, you have to do the following for each such column:

ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE c1 c1 BLOB;
ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE c1 c1 TEXT CHARACTER SET utf8;

The reason this works is that there is no conversion when you convert to or from BLOB columns.

To change only the default character set for a table, use this statement:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name DEFAULT CHARACTER SET charset_name;

The word DEFAULT is optional. The default character set is the character set that is used if you do not specify the character set for columns that you add to a table later (for example, with ALTER TABLE ... ADD column).

When the foreign_key_checks system variable is enabled, which is the default setting, character set conversion is not permitted on tables that include a character string column used in a foreign key constraint. The workaround is to disable foreign_key_checks before performing the character set conversion. You must perform the conversion on both tables involved in the foreign key constraint before re-enabling foreign_key_checks. If you re-enable foreign_key_checks after converting only one of the tables, an ON DELETE CASCADE or ON UPDATE CASCADE operation could corrupt data in the referencing table due to implicit conversion that occurs during these operations (Bug #45290, Bug #74816).

Discarding and Importing InnoDB Tablespaces

An InnoDB table created in its own file-per-table tablespace can be discarded and imported using the DISCARD TABLESPACE and IMPORT TABLESPACE options. These options can be used to import a file-per-table tablespace from a backup or to copy a file-per-table tablespace from one database server to another. See Section 14.7.6, “Copying File-Per-Table Tablespaces to Another Instance”.

Row Order for MyISAM Tables

ORDER BY enables you to create the new table with the rows in a specific order. This option is useful primarily when you know that you query the rows in a certain order most of the time. By using this option after major changes to the table, you might be able to get higher performance. In some cases, it might make sorting easier for MySQL if the table is in order by the column that you want to order it by later.

Note

The table does not remain in the specified order after inserts and deletes.

ORDER BY syntax permits one or more column names to be specified for sorting, each of which optionally can be followed by ASC or DESC to indicate ascending or descending sort order, respectively. The default is ascending order. Only column names are permitted as sort criteria; arbitrary expressions are not permitted. This clause should be given last after any other clauses.

ORDER BY does not make sense for InnoDB tables because InnoDB always orders table rows according to the clustered index.

When used on a partitioned table, ALTER TABLE ... ORDER BY orders rows within each partition only.

Partitioning Options

partition_options signifies options that can be used with partitioned tables for repartitioning, to add, drop, discard, import, merge, and split partitions, and to perform partitioning maintenance.

It is possible for an ALTER TABLE statement to contain a PARTITION BY or REMOVE PARTITIONING clause in an addition to other alter specifications, but the PARTITION BY or REMOVE PARTITIONING clause must be specified last after any other specifications. The ADD PARTITION, DROP PARTITION, DISCARD PARTITION, IMPORT PARTITION, COALESCE PARTITION, REORGANIZE PARTITION, EXCHANGE PARTITION, ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, and REPAIR PARTITION options cannot be combined with other alter specifications in a single ALTER TABLE, since the options just listed act on individual partitions.

For more information about partition options, see Section 13.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”, and Section 13.1.8.1, “ALTER TABLE Partition Operations”. For information about and examples of ALTER TABLE ... EXCHANGE PARTITION statements, see Section 22.3.3, “Exchanging Partitions and Subpartitions with Tables”.

Prior to MySQL 5.7.6, partitioned InnoDB tables used the generic ha_partition partitioning handler employed by MyISAM and other storage engines not supplying their own partitioning handlers; in MySQL 5.7.6 and later, such tables are created using the InnoDB storage engine's own (or native) partitioning handler. Beginning with MySQL 5.7.9, you can upgrade an InnoDB table that was created in MySQL 5.7.6 or earlier (that is, created using ha_partition) to the InnoDB native partition handler using ALTER TABLE ... UPGRADE PARTITIONING. (Bug #76734, Bug #20727344) This ALTER TABLE syntax does not accept any other options and can be used only on a single table at a time. You can also use mysql_upgrade in MySQL 5.7.9 or later to upgrade older partitioned InnoDB tables to the native partitioning handler.

13.1.8.1 ALTER TABLE Partition Operations

Partitioning-related clauses for ALTER TABLE can be used with partitioned tables for repartitioning, to add, drop, discard, import, merge, and split partitions, and to perform partitioning maintenance.

  • Simply using a partition_options clause with ALTER TABLE on a partitioned table repartitions the table according to the partitioning scheme defined by the partition_options. This clause always begins with PARTITION BY, and follows the same syntax and other rules as apply to the partition_options clause for CREATE TABLE (for more detailed information, see Section 13.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”), and can also be used to partition an existing table that is not already partitioned. For example, consider a (nonpartitioned) table defined as shown here:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        id INT,
        year_col INT
    );
    

    This table can be partitioned by HASH, using the id column as the partitioning key, into 8 partitions by means of this statement:

    ALTER TABLE t1
        PARTITION BY HASH(id)
        PARTITIONS 8;
    

    MySQL supports an ALGORITHM option with [SUB]PARTITION BY [LINEAR] KEY. ALGORITHM=1 causes the server to use the same key-hashing functions as MySQL 5.1 when computing the placement of rows in partitions; ALGORITHM=2 means that the server employs the key-hashing functions implemented and used by default for new KEY partitioned tables in MySQL 5.5 and later. (Partitioned tables created with the key-hashing functions employed in MySQL 5.5 and later cannot be used by a MySQL 5.1 server.) Not specifying the option has the same effect as using ALGORITHM=2. This option is intended for use chiefly when upgrading or downgrading [LINEAR] KEY partitioned tables between MySQL 5.1 and later MySQL versions, or for creating tables partitioned by KEY or LINEAR KEY on a MySQL 5.5 or later server which can be used on a MySQL 5.1 server.

    To upgrade a KEY partitioned table that was created in MySQL 5.1, first execute SHOW CREATE TABLE and note the exact columns and number of partitions shown. Now execute an ALTER TABLE statement using exactly the same column list and number of partitions as in the CREATE TABLE statement, while adding ALGORITHM=2 immediately following the PARTITION BY keywords. (You should also include the LINEAR keyword if it was used for the original table definition.) An example from a session in the mysql client is shown here:

    mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE p\G
    *************************** 1. row ***************************
           Table: p
    Create Table: CREATE TABLE `p` (
      `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
      `cd` datetime NOT NULL,
      PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
    ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
    /*!50100 PARTITION BY LINEAR KEY (id)
    PARTITIONS 32 */
    1 row in set (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> ALTER TABLE p PARTITION BY LINEAR KEY ALGORITHM=2 (id) PARTITIONS 32;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (5.34 sec)
    Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
    
    mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE p\G
    *************************** 1. row ***************************
           Table: p
    Create Table: CREATE TABLE `p` (
      `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
      `cd` datetime NOT NULL,
      PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
    ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
    /*!50100 PARTITION BY LINEAR KEY (id)
    PARTITIONS 32 */
    1 row in set (0.00 sec)
    

    Downgrading a table created using the default key-hashing used in MySQL 5.5 and later to enable its use by a MySQL 5.1 server is similar, except in this case you should use ALGORITHM=1 to force the table's partitions to be rebuilt using the MySQL 5.1 key-hashing functions. It is recommended that you not do this except when necessary for compatibility with a MySQL 5.1 server, as the improved KEY hashing functions used by default in MySQL 5.5 and later provide fixes for a number of issues found in the older implementation.

    Note

    A table upgraded by means of ALTER TABLE ... PARTITION BY ALGORITHM=2 [LINEAR] KEY ... can no longer be used by a MySQL 5.1 server. (Such a table would need to be downgraded with ALTER TABLE ... PARTITION BY ALGORITHM=1 [LINEAR] KEY ... before it could be used again by a MySQL 5.1 server.)

    The table that results from using an ALTER TABLE ... PARTITION BY statement must follow the same rules as one created using CREATE TABLE ... PARTITION BY. This includes the rules governing the relationship between any unique keys (including any primary key) that the table might have, and the column or columns used in the partitioning expression, as discussed in Section 22.6.1, “Partitioning Keys, Primary Keys, and Unique Keys”. The CREATE TABLE ... PARTITION BY rules for specifying the number of partitions also apply to ALTER TABLE ... PARTITION BY.

    The partition_definition clause for ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION supports the same options as the clause of the same name for the CREATE TABLE statement. (See Section 13.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”, for the syntax and description.) Suppose that you have the partitioned table created as shown here:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        id INT,
        year_col INT
    )
    PARTITION BY RANGE (year_col) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1991),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1995),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (1999)
    );
    

    You can add a new partition p3 to this table for storing values less than 2002 as follows:

    ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION (PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (2002));
    

    ADD PARTITION can also be used with the TABLESPACE clause to add a new partition to an existing general tablespace, to a file-per-table tablespace, or to the system tablespace.

    ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION
        (PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (2015) TABLESPACE = `ts1`);
    
    ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION
        (PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (2015) TABLESPACE = `innodb_file_per_table`);
    
    ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION
        (PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (2015) TABLESPACE = `innodb_system`);
    
    Note

    If the TABLESPACE = tablespace_name option is not defined, the ALTER TABLE ... ADD PARTITION operation adds the partition to the table's default tablespace, which can be specified at the table level during CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE.

    DROP PARTITION can be used to drop one or more RANGE or LIST partitions. This statement cannot be used with HASH or KEY partitions; instead, use COALESCE PARTITION (see below). Any data that was stored in the dropped partitions named in the partition_names list is discarded. For example, given the table t1 defined previously, you can drop the partitions named p0 and p1 as shown here:

    ALTER TABLE t1 DROP PARTITION p0, p1;
    
    Note

    DROP PARTITION does not work with tables that use the NDB storage engine. See Section 22.3.1, “Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions”, and Section 21.1.6, “Known Limitations of NDB Cluster”.

    ADD PARTITION and DROP PARTITION do not currently support IF [NOT] EXISTS.

    DISCARD PARTITION ... TABLESPACE and IMPORT PARTITION ... TABLESPACE options extend the Transportable Tablespace feature to individual InnoDB table partitions. Each InnoDB table partition has its own tablespace file (.idb file). The Transportable Tablespace feature makes it easy to copy the tablespaces from a running MySQL server instance to another running instance, or to perform a restore on the same instance. Both options take a list of one or more comma-separated partition names. For example:

    ALTER TABLE t1 DISCARD PARTITION p2, p3 TABLESPACE;
    
    ALTER TABLE t1 IMPORT PARTITION p2, p3 TABLESPACE;
    

    When running DISCARD PARTITION ... TABLESPACE and IMPORT PARTITION ... TABLESPACE on subpartitioned tables, both partition and subpartition names are allowed. When a partition name is specified, subpartitions of that partition are included.

    The Transportable Tablespace feature also supports copying or restoring partitioned InnoDB tables (all partitions at once). For addition information about the Transportable Tablespace feature, see Section 14.7.6, “Copying File-Per-Table Tablespaces to Another Instance”. For usage examples, see Section 14.7.6.1, “Transportable Tablespace Examples”.

    Renames of partitioned tables are supported. You can rename individual partitions indirectly using ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION; however, this operation copies the partition's data.

    To delete rows from selected partitions, use the TRUNCATE PARTITION option. This option takes a comma-separated list of one or more partition names. For example, consider the table t1 as defined here:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        id INT,
        year_col INT
    )
    PARTITION BY RANGE (year_col) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1991),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1995),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (1999),
        PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (2003),
        PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (2007)
    );
    

    To delete all rows from partition p0, use the following statement:

    ALTER TABLE t1 TRUNCATE PARTITION p0;
    

    The statement just shown has the same effect as the following DELETE statement:

    DELETE FROM t1 WHERE year_col < 1991;
    

    When truncating multiple partitions, the partitions do not have to be contiguous: This can greatly simplify delete operations on partitioned tables that would otherwise require very complex WHERE conditions if done with DELETE statements. For example, this statement deletes all rows from partitions p1 and p3:

    ALTER TABLE t1 TRUNCATE PARTITION p1, p3;
    

    An equivalent DELETE statement is shown here:

    DELETE FROM t1 WHERE
        (year_col >= 1991 AND year_col < 1995)
        OR
        (year_col >= 2003 AND year_col < 2007);
    

    If you use the ALL keyword in place of the list of partition names, the statement acts on all table partitions.

    TRUNCATE PARTITION merely deletes rows; it does not alter the definition of the table itself, or of any of its partitions.

    To verify that the rows were dropped, check the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARTITIONS table, using a query such as this one:

    SELECT PARTITION_NAME, TABLE_ROWS
        FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARTITIONS
        WHERE TABLE_NAME = 't1';
    

    TRUNCATE PARTITION is supported only for partitioned tables that use the MyISAM, InnoDB, or MEMORY storage engine. It also works on BLACKHOLE tables (but has no effect). It is not supported for ARCHIVE tables.

    COALESCE PARTITION can be used with a table that is partitioned by HASH or KEY to reduce the number of partitions by number. Suppose that you have created table t2 as follows:

    CREATE TABLE t2 (
        name VARCHAR (30),
        started DATE
    )
    PARTITION BY HASH( YEAR(started) )
    PARTITIONS 6;
    

    To reduce the number of partitions used by t2 from 6 to 4, use the following statement:

    ALTER TABLE t2 COALESCE PARTITION 2;
    

    The data contained in the last number partitions will be merged into the remaining partitions. In this case, partitions 4 and 5 will be merged into the first 4 partitions (the partitions numbered 0, 1, 2, and 3).

    To change some but not all the partitions used by a partitioned table, you can use REORGANIZE PARTITION. This statement can be used in several ways:

    • To merge a set of partitions into a single partition. This is done by naming several partitions in the partition_names list and supplying a single definition for partition_definition.

    • To split an existing partition into several partitions. Accomplish this by naming a single partition for partition_names and providing multiple partition_definitions.

    • To change the ranges for a subset of partitions defined using VALUES LESS THAN or the value lists for a subset of partitions defined using VALUES IN.

    • To move a partition from one tablespace to another. For an example, see Moving Table Partitions Between Tablespaces Using ALTER TABLE.

    • This statement may also be used without the partition_names INTO (partition_definitions) option on tables that are automatically partitioned using HASH partitioning to force redistribution of data. (Currently, only NDB tables are automatically partitioned in this way.) This is useful in NDB Cluster where, after you have added new NDB Cluster data nodes online to an existing NDB Cluster, you wish to redistribute existing NDB Cluster table data to the new data nodes. In such cases, you should invoke the statement with the ALGORITHM=INPLACE option; in other words, as shown here:

      ALTER TABLE table ALGORITHM=INPLACE, REORGANIZE PARTITION;
      

      You cannot perform other DDL concurrently with online table reorganization—that is, no other DDL statements can be issued while an ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE, REORGANIZE PARTITION statement is executing. For more information about adding NDB Cluster data nodes online, see Section 21.5.14, “Adding NDB Cluster Data Nodes Online”.

      Note

      ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE, REORGANIZE PARTITION does not work with tables which were created using the MAX_ROWS option, because it uses the constant MAX_ROWS value specified in the original CREATE TABLE statement to determine the number of partitions required, so no new partitions are created. Instead, you can use ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE, MAX_ROWS=rows to increase the maximum number of rows for such a table; in this case, ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE, REORGANIZE PARTITION is not needed (and causes an error if executed). The value of rows must be greater than the value specified for MAX_ROWS in the original CREATE TABLE statement for this to work.

      Employing MAX_ROWS to force the number of table partitions is deprecated in NDB 7.5.4 and later; use PARTITION_BALANCE instead (see Setting NDB_TABLE options).

      Attempting to use REORGANIZE PARTITION without the partition_names INTO (partition_definitions) option on explicitly partitioned tables results in the error REORGANIZE PARTITION without parameters can only be used on auto-partitioned tables using HASH partitioning.

    Note

    For partitions that have not been explicitly named, MySQL automatically provides the default names p0, p1, p2, and so on. The same is true with regard to subpartitions.

    For more detailed information about and examples of ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION statements, see Section 22.3.1, “Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions”.

  • To exchange a table partition or subpartition with a table, use the ALTER TABLE ... EXCHANGE PARTITION statement—that is, to move any existing rows in the partition or subpartition to the nonpartitioned table, and any existing rows in the nonpartitioned table to the table partition or subpartition.

    For usage information and examples, see Section 22.3.3, “Exchanging Partitions and Subpartitions with Tables”.

  • Several options provide partition maintenance and repair functionality analogous to that implemented for nonpartitioned tables by statements such as CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE (which are also supported for partitioned tables; for more information, see Section 13.7.2, “Table Maintenance Statements”). These include ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, OPTIMIZE PARTITION, REBUILD PARTITION, and REPAIR PARTITION. Each of these options takes a partition_names clause consisting of one or more names of partitions, separated by commas. The partitions must already exist in the table to be altered. You can also use the ALL keyword in place of partition_names, in which case the statement acts on all table partitions. For more information and examples, see Section 22.3.4, “Maintenance of Partitions”.

    Some MySQL storage engines, such as InnoDB, do not support per-partition optimization. For a partitioned table using such a storage engine, ALTER TABLE ... OPTIMIZE PARTITION causes the entire table to rebuilt and analyzed, and an appropriate warning to be issued. (Bug #11751825, Bug #42822)

    To work around this problem, use the statements ALTER TABLE ... REBUILD PARTITION and ALTER TABLE ... ANALYZE PARTITION instead.

    The ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, OPTIMIZE PARTITION, and REPAIR PARTITION options are not permitted for tables which are not partitioned.

  • REMOVE PARTITIONING enables you to remove a table's partitioning without otherwise affecting the table or its data. This option can be combined with other ALTER TABLE options such as those used to add, drop, or rename columns or indexes.

  • Using the ENGINE option with ALTER TABLE changes the storage engine used by the table without affecting the partitioning.

When ALTER TABLE ... EXCHANGE PARTITION or ALTER TABLE ... TRUNCATE PARTITION is run against a partitioned table that uses MyISAM (or another storage engine that makes use of table-level locking), only those partitions that are actually read from are locked. (This does not apply to partitioned tables using a storage enginethat employs row-level locking, such as InnoDB.) See Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

It is possible for an ALTER TABLE statement to contain a PARTITION BY or REMOVE PARTITIONING clause in an addition to other alter specifications, but the PARTITION BY or REMOVE PARTITIONING clause must be specified last after any other specifications.

The ADD PARTITION, DROP PARTITION, COALESCE PARTITION, REORGANIZE PARTITION, ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, and REPAIR PARTITION options cannot be combined with other alter specifications in a single ALTER TABLE, since the options just listed act on individual partitions. For more information, see Section 13.1.8.1, “ALTER TABLE Partition Operations”.

Only a single instance of any one of the following options can be used in a given ALTER TABLE statement: PARTITION BY, ADD PARTITION, DROP PARTITION, TRUNCATE PARTITION, EXCHANGE PARTITION, REORGANIZE PARTITION, or COALESCE PARTITION, ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, OPTIMIZE PARTITION, REBUILD PARTITION, REMOVE PARTITIONING.

For example, the following two statements are invalid:

ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p1, ANALYZE PARTITION p2;

ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p1, CHECK PARTITION p2;

In the first case, you can analyze partitions p1 and p2 of table t1 concurrently using a single statement with a single ANALYZE PARTITION option that lists both of the partitions to be analyzed, like this:

ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p1, p2;

In the second case, it is not possible to perform ANALYZE and CHECK operations on different partitions of the same table concurrently. Instead, you must issue two separate statements, like this:

ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p1;
ALTER TABLE t1 CHECK PARTITION p2;

REBUILD operations are currently unsupported for subpartitions. The REBUILD keyword is expressly disallowed with subpartitions, and causes ALTER TABLE to fail with an error if so used.

CHECK PARTITION and REPAIR PARTITION operations fail when the partition to be checked or repaired contains any duplicate key errors.

For more information about these statements, see Section 22.3.4, “Maintenance of Partitions”.

13.1.8.2 ALTER TABLE Online Operations in NDB Cluster

MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 supports online table schema changes using the standard ALTER TABLE syntax employed by the MySQL Server (ALGORITHM=DEFAULT|INPLACE|COPY), and described elsewhere.

Note

Some older releases of NDB Cluster used a syntax specific to NDB for online ALTER TABLE operations. That syntax has since been removed.

Operations that add and drop indexes on variable-width columns of NDB tables occur online. Online operations are noncopying; that is, they do not require that indexes be re-created. They do not lock the table being altered from access by other API nodes in an NDB Cluster (but see Limitations of NDB Cluster online operations, later in this section). Such operations do not require single user mode for NDB table alterations made in an NDB cluster with multiple API nodes; transactions can continue uninterrupted during online DDL operations.

ALGORITHM=INPLACE can be used to perform online ADD COLUMN, ADD INDEX (including CREATE INDEX statements), and DROP INDEX operations on NDB tables. Online renaming of NDB tables is also supported.

Currently you cannot add disk-based columns to NDB tables online. This means that, if you wish to add an in-memory column to an NDB table that uses a table-level STORAGE DISK option, you must declare the new column as using memory-based storage explicitly. For example—assuming that you have already created tablespace ts1—suppose that you create table t1 as follows:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
     >     c1 INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
     >     c2 VARCHAR(30)
     >     )
     >     TABLESPACE ts1 STORAGE DISK
     >     ENGINE NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.73 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

You can add a new in-memory column to this table online as shown here:

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 
     >     ADD COLUMN c3 INT COLUMN_FORMAT DYNAMIC STORAGE MEMORY,
     >     ALGORITHM=INPLACE;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.25 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

This statement fails if the STORAGE MEMORY option is omitted:

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1
     >     ADD COLUMN c4 INT COLUMN_FORMAT DYNAMIC,
     >     ALGORITHM=INPLACE;
ERROR 1846 (0A000): ALGORITHM=INPLACE is not supported. Reason: 
Adding column(s) or add/reorganize partition not supported online. Try 
ALGORITHM=COPY.

If you omit the COLUMN_FORMAT DYNAMIC option, the dynamic column format is employed automatically, but a warning is issued, as shown here:

mysql> ALTER ONLINE TABLE t1 ADD COLUMN c4 INT STORAGE MEMORY;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (1.17 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Warning
   Code: 1478
Message: DYNAMIC column c4 with STORAGE DISK is not supported, column will 
become FIXED


mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t1` (
  `c1` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `c2` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL,
  `c3` int(11) /*!50606 STORAGE MEMORY */ /*!50606 COLUMN_FORMAT DYNAMIC */ DEFAULT NULL,
  `c4` int(11) /*!50606 STORAGE MEMORY */ DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`c1`)
) /*!50606 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK */ ENGINE=ndbcluster DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.03 sec)
Note

The STORAGE and COLUMN_FORMAT keywords are supported only in NDB Cluster; in any other version of MySQL, attempting to use either of these keywords in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement results in an error.

It is also possible to use the statement ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION, ALGORITHM=INPLACE with no partition_names INTO (partition_definitions) option on NDB tables. This can be used to redistribute NDB Cluster data among new data nodes that have been added to the cluster online. This does not perform any defragmentation, which requires an OPTIMIZE TABLE or null ALTER TABLE statement. For more information, see Section 21.5.14, “Adding NDB Cluster Data Nodes Online”.

Limitations of NDB Cluster online operations

Online DROP COLUMN operations are not supported.

Online ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX, or DROP INDEX statements that add columns or add or drop indexes are subject to the following limitations:

  • A given online ALTER TABLE can use only one of ADD COLUMN, ADD INDEX, or DROP INDEX. One or more columns can be added online in a single statement; only one index may be created or dropped online in a single statement.

  • The table being altered is not locked with respect to API nodes other than the one on which an online ALTER TABLE ADD COLUMN, ADD INDEX, or DROP INDEX operation (or CREATE INDEX or DROP INDEX statement) is run. However, the table is locked against any other operations originating on the same API node while the online operation is being executed.

  • The table to be altered must have an explicit primary key; the hidden primary key created by the NDB storage engine is not sufficient for this purpose.

  • The storage engine used by the table cannot be changed online.

  • When used with NDB Cluster Disk Data tables, it is not possible to change the storage type (DISK or MEMORY) of a column online. This means, that when you add or drop an index in such a way that the operation would be performed online, and you want the storage type of the column or columns to be changed, you must use ALGORITHM=COPY in the statement that adds or drops the index.

Columns to be added online cannot use the BLOB or TEXT type, and must meet the following criteria:

  • The columns must be dynamic; that is, it must be possible to create them using COLUMN_FORMAT DYNAMIC. If you omit the COLUMN_FORMAT DYNAMIC option, the dynamic column format is employed automatically.

  • The columns must permit NULL values and not have any explicit default value other than NULL. Columns added online are automatically created as DEFAULT NULL, as can be seen here:

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t2 (
         >     c1 INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY
         >     ) ENGINE=NDB;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.44 sec)
    
    mysql> ALTER TABLE t2
         >     ADD COLUMN c2 INT,
         >     ADD COLUMN c3 INT,
         >     ALGORITHM=INPLACE;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.93 sec)
    
    mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t1\G
    *************************** 1. row ***************************
           Table: t1
    Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t2` (
      `c1` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
      `c2` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
      `c3` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
      PRIMARY KEY (`c1`)
    ) ENGINE=ndbcluster DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
    1 row in set (0.00 sec)
    
  • The columns must be added following any existing columns. If you attempt to add a column online before any existing columns or using the FIRST keyword, the statement fails with an error.

  • Existing table columns cannot be reordered online.

For online ALTER TABLE operations on NDB tables, fixed-format columns are converted to dynamic when they are added online, or when indexes are created or dropped online, as shown here (repeating the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements just shown for the sake of clarity):

mysql> CREATE TABLE t2 (
     >     c1 INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY
     >     ) ENGINE=NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.44 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE t2
     >     ADD COLUMN c2 INT,
     >     ADD COLUMN c3 INT,
     >     ALGORITHM=INPLACE;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.93 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Warning
   Code: 1478
Message: Converted FIXED field 'c2' to DYNAMIC to enable online ADD COLUMN
*************************** 2. row ***************************
  Level: Warning
   Code: 1478
Message: Converted FIXED field 'c3' to DYNAMIC to enable online ADD COLUMN
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Only the column or columns to be added online must be dynamic. Existing columns need not be; this includes the table's primary key, which may also be FIXED, as shown here:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t3 (
     >     c1 INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY COLUMN_FORMAT FIXED
     >     ) ENGINE=NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (2.10 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE t3 ADD COLUMN c2 INT, ALGORITHM=INPLACE;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.78 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Warning
   Code: 1478
Message: Converted FIXED field 'c2' to DYNAMIC to enable online ADD COLUMN
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Columns are not converted from FIXED to DYNAMIC column format by renaming operations. For more information about COLUMN_FORMAT, see Section 13.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”.

The KEY, CONSTRAINT, and IGNORE keywords are supported in ALTER TABLE statements using ALGORITHM=INPLACE.

Beginning with NDB Cluster 7.5.7 and 7.6.3, setting MAX_ROWS to 0 using an online ALTER TABLE statement is disallowed. You must use a copying ALTER TABLE to perform this operation. (Bug #21960004)

13.1.8.3 ALTER TABLE and Generated Columns

ALTER TABLE operations permitted for generated columns are ADD, MODIFY, and CHANGE.

  • Generated columns can be added.

  • The data type and expression of generated columns can be modified.

  • Generated columns can be renamed or dropped, if no other column refers to them.

  • Virtual generated columns cannot be altered to stored generated columns, or vice versa. To work around this, drop the column, then add it with the new definition.

  • Nongenerated columns can be altered to stored but not virtual generated columns.

  • Stored but not virtual generated columns can be altered to nongenerated columns. The stored generated values become the values of the nongenerated column.

  • ADD COLUMN is not an in-place operation for stored columns (done without using a temporary table) because the expression must be evaluated by the server. For stored columns, indexing changes are done in place, and expression changes are not done in place. Changes to column comments are done in place.

  • For non-partitioned tables, ADD COLUMN and DROP COLUMN are in-place operations for virtual columns. However, adding or dropping a virtual column cannot be performed in place in combination with other ALTER TABLE operations.

    For partitioned tables, ADD COLUMN and DROP COLUMN are not in-place operations for virtual columns.

  • InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual generated columns. Adding or dropping a secondary index on a virtual generated column is an in-place operation. For more information, see Section 13.1.18.9, “Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns”.

  • When a VIRTUAL generated column is added to a table or modified, it is not ensured that data being calculated by the generated column expression will not be out of range for the column. This can lead to inconsistent data being returned and unexpectedly failed statements. To permit control over whether validation occurs for such columns, ALTER TABLE supports WITHOUT VALIDATION and WITH VALIDATION clauses:

    • With WITHOUT VALIDATION (the default if neither clause is specified), an in-place operation is performed (if possible), data integrity is not checked, and the statement finishes more quickly. However, later reads from the table might report warnings or errors for the column if values are out of range.

    • With WITH VALIDATION, ALTER TABLE copies the table. If an out-of-range or any other error occurs, the statement fails. Because a table copy is performed, the statement takes longer.

    WITHOUT VALIDATION and WITH VALIDATION are permitted only with ADD COLUMN, CHANGE COLUMN, and MODIFY COLUMN operations. Otherwise, an ER_WRONG_USAGE error occurs.

  • As of MySQL 5.7.10, if expression evaluation causes truncation or provides incorrect input to a function, the ALTER TABLE statement terminates with an error and the DDL operation is rejected.

  • An ALTER TABLE statement that changes the default value of a column col_name may also change the value of a generated column expression that refers to the column using DEFAULT(col_name). For this reason, as of MySQL 5.7.13, ALTER TABLE operations that change the definition of a column now cause a table rebuild if any generated column expression uses DEFAULT().

13.1.8.4 ALTER TABLE Examples

Begin with a table t1 created as shown here:

CREATE TABLE t1 (a INTEGER, b CHAR(10));

To rename the table from t1 to t2:

ALTER TABLE t1 RENAME t2;

To change column a from INTEGER to TINYINT NOT NULL (leaving the name the same), and to change column b from CHAR(10) to CHAR(20) as well as renaming it from b to c:

ALTER TABLE t2 MODIFY a TINYINT NOT NULL, CHANGE b c CHAR(20);

To add a new TIMESTAMP column named d:

ALTER TABLE t2 ADD d TIMESTAMP;

To add an index on column d and a UNIQUE index on column a:

ALTER TABLE t2 ADD INDEX (d), ADD UNIQUE (a);

To remove column c:

ALTER TABLE t2 DROP COLUMN c;

To add a new AUTO_INCREMENT integer column named c:

ALTER TABLE t2 ADD c INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  ADD PRIMARY KEY (c);

We indexed c (as a PRIMARY KEY) because AUTO_INCREMENT columns must be indexed, and we declare c as NOT NULL because primary key columns cannot be NULL.

For NDB tables, it is also possible to change the storage type used for a table or column. For example, consider an NDB table created as shown here:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT) TABLESPACE ts_1 ENGINE NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.27 sec)

To convert this table to disk-based storage, you can use the following ALTER TABLE statement:

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (2.99 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t1` (
  `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
) /*!50100 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK */
ENGINE=ndbcluster DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

It is not necessary that the tablespace was referenced when the table was originally created; however, the tablespace must be referenced by the ALTER TABLE:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t2 (c1 INT) ts_1 ENGINE NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.00 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 STORAGE DISK;
ERROR 1005 (HY000): Can't create table 'c.#sql-1750_3' (errno: 140)
mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (3.42 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t2` (
  `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
) /*!50100 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK */
ENGINE=ndbcluster DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

To change the storage type of an individual column, you can use ALTER TABLE ... MODIFY [COLUMN]. For example, suppose you create an NDB Cluster Disk Data table with two columns, using this CREATE TABLE statement:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t3 (c1 INT, c2 INT)
    ->     TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK ENGINE NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.34 sec)

To change column c2 from disk-based to in-memory storage, include a STORAGE MEMORY clause in the column definition used by the ALTER TABLE statement, as shown here:

mysql> ALTER TABLE t3 MODIFY c2 INT STORAGE MEMORY;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (3.14 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

You can make an in-memory column into a disk-based column by using STORAGE DISK in a similar fashion.

Column c1 uses disk-based storage, since this is the default for the table (determined by the table-level STORAGE DISK clause in the CREATE TABLE statement). However, column c2 uses in-memory storage, as can be seen here in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t3\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t3
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t3` (
  `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `c2` int(11) /*!50120 STORAGE MEMORY */ DEFAULT NULL
) /*!50100 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK */ ENGINE=ndbcluster DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

When you add an AUTO_INCREMENT column, column values are filled in with sequence numbers automatically. For MyISAM tables, you can set the first sequence number by executing SET INSERT_ID=value before ALTER TABLE or by using the AUTO_INCREMENT=value table option.

With MyISAM tables, if you do not change the AUTO_INCREMENT column, the sequence number is not affected. If you drop an AUTO_INCREMENT column and then add another AUTO_INCREMENT column, the numbers are resequenced beginning with 1.

When replication is used, adding an AUTO_INCREMENT column to a table might not produce the same ordering of the rows on the slave and the master. This occurs because the order in which the rows are numbered depends on the specific storage engine used for the table and the order in which the rows were inserted. If it is important to have the same order on the master and slave, the rows must be ordered before assigning an AUTO_INCREMENT number. Assuming that you want to add an AUTO_INCREMENT column to the table t1, the following statements produce a new table t2 identical to t1 but with an AUTO_INCREMENT column:

CREATE TABLE t2 (id INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY)
SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY col1, col2;

This assumes that the table t1 has columns col1 and col2.

This set of statements will also produce a new table t2 identical to t1, with the addition of an AUTO_INCREMENT column:

CREATE TABLE t2 LIKE t1;
ALTER TABLE t2 ADD id INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY col1, col2;
Important

To guarantee the same ordering on both master and slave, all columns of t1 must be referenced in the ORDER BY clause.

Regardless of the method used to create and populate the copy having the AUTO_INCREMENT column, the final step is to drop the original table and then rename the copy:

DROP TABLE t1;
ALTER TABLE t2 RENAME t1;

13.1.9 ALTER TABLESPACE Syntax

ALTER TABLESPACE tablespace_name
    {ADD|DROP} DATAFILE 'file_name'
    [INITIAL_SIZE [=] size]
    [WAIT]
    ENGINE [=] engine_name

This statement can be used either to add a new data file, or to drop a data file from a tablespace.

The ADD DATAFILE variant enables you to specify an initial size using an INITIAL_SIZE clause, where size is measured in bytes; the default value is 134217728 (128 MB). You may optionally follow size with a one-letter abbreviation for an order of magnitude, similar to those used in my.cnf. Generally, this is one of the letters M (megabytes) or G (gigabytes).

Note

All NDB Cluster Disk Data objects share the same namespace. This means that each Disk Data object must be uniquely named (and not merely each Disk Data object of a given type). For example, you cannot have a tablespace and an data file with the same name, or an undo log file and a tablespace with the same name.

On 32-bit systems, the maximum supported value for INITIAL_SIZE is 4294967296 (4 GB). (Bug #29186)

INITIAL_SIZE is rounded, explicitly, as for CREATE TABLESPACE.

Once a data file has been created, its size cannot be changed; however, you can add more data files to the tablespace using additional ALTER TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE statements.

Using DROP DATAFILE with ALTER TABLESPACE drops the data file 'file_name' from the tablespace. You cannot drop a data file from a tablespace which is in use by any table; in other words, the data file must be empty (no extents used). See Section 21.5.13.1, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Objects”. In addition, any data file to be dropped must previously have been added to the tablespace with CREATE TABLESPACE or ALTER TABLESPACE.

Both ALTER TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE and ALTER TABLESPACE ... DROP DATAFILE require an ENGINE clause which specifies the storage engine used by the tablespace. Currently, the only accepted values for engine_name are NDB and NDBCLUSTER.

WAIT is parsed but otherwise ignored, and so has no effect in MySQL 5.7. It is intended for future expansion.

When ALTER TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE is used with ENGINE = NDB, a data file is created on each Cluster data node. You can verify that the data files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table. For example, the following query shows all data files belonging to the tablespace named newts:

mysql> SELECT LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME, FILE_NAME, EXTRA
    -> FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
    -> WHERE TABLESPACE_NAME = 'newts' AND FILE_TYPE = 'DATAFILE';
+--------------------+--------------+----------------+
| LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME | FILE_NAME    | EXTRA          |
+--------------------+--------------+----------------+
| lg_3               | newdata.dat  | CLUSTER_NODE=3 |
| lg_3               | newdata.dat  | CLUSTER_NODE=4 |
| lg_3               | newdata2.dat | CLUSTER_NODE=3 |
| lg_3               | newdata2.dat | CLUSTER_NODE=4 |
+--------------------+--------------+----------------+
2 rows in set (0.03 sec)

See Section 24.8, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table”.

ALTER TABLESPACE is useful only with Disk Data storage for NDB Cluster. See Section 21.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”.

13.1.10 ALTER VIEW Syntax

ALTER
    [ALGORITHM = {UNDEFINED | MERGE | TEMPTABLE}]
    [DEFINER = { user | CURRENT_USER }]
    [SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }]
    VIEW view_name [(column_list)]
    AS select_statement
    [WITH [CASCADED | LOCAL] CHECK OPTION]

This statement changes the definition of a view, which must exist. The syntax is similar to that for CREATE VIEW and the effect is the same as for CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW. See Section 13.1.21, “CREATE VIEW Syntax”. This statement requires the CREATE VIEW and DROP privileges for the view, and some privilege for each column referred to in the SELECT statement. ALTER VIEW is permitted only to the definer or users with the SUPER privilege.

13.1.11 CREATE DATABASE Syntax

CREATE {DATABASE | SCHEMA} [IF NOT EXISTS] db_name
    [create_specification] ...

create_specification:
    [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name

CREATE DATABASE creates a database with the given name. To use this statement, you need the CREATE privilege for the database. CREATE SCHEMA is a synonym for CREATE DATABASE.

An error occurs if the database exists and you did not specify IF NOT EXISTS.

CREATE DATABASE is not permitted within a session that has an active LOCK TABLES statement.

create_specification options specify database characteristics. Database characteristics are stored in the db.opt file in the database directory. The CHARACTER SET clause specifies the default database character set. The COLLATE clause specifies the default database collation. Section 10.1, “Character Set Support”, discusses character set and collation names.

A database in MySQL is implemented as a directory containing files that correspond to tables in the database. Because there are no tables in a database when it is initially created, the CREATE DATABASE statement creates only a directory under the MySQL data directory and the db.opt file. Rules for permissible database names are given in Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”. If a database name contains special characters, the name for the database directory contains encoded versions of those characters as described in Section 9.2.3, “Mapping of Identifiers to File Names”.

If you manually create a directory under the data directory (for example, with mkdir), the server considers it a database directory and it shows up in the output of SHOW DATABASES.

You can also use the mysqladmin program to create databases. See Section 4.5.2, “mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server”.

13.1.12 CREATE EVENT Syntax

CREATE
    [DEFINER = { user | CURRENT_USER }]
    EVENT
    [IF NOT EXISTS]
    event_name
    ON SCHEDULE schedule
    [ON COMPLETION [NOT] PRESERVE]
    [ENABLE | DISABLE | DISABLE ON SLAVE]
    [COMMENT 'comment']
    DO event_body;

schedule:
    AT timestamp [+ INTERVAL interval] ...
  | EVERY interval
    [STARTS timestamp [+ INTERVAL interval] ...]
    [ENDS timestamp [+ INTERVAL interval] ...]

interval:
    quantity {YEAR | QUARTER | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE |
              WEEK | SECOND | YEAR_MONTH | DAY_HOUR | DAY_MINUTE |
              DAY_SECOND | HOUR_MINUTE | HOUR_SECOND | MINUTE_SECOND}

This statement creates and schedules a new event. The event will not run unless the Event Scheduler is enabled. For information about checking Event Scheduler status and enabling it if necessary, see Section 23.4.2, “Event Scheduler Configuration”.

CREATE EVENT requires the EVENT privilege for the schema in which the event is to be created. It might also require the SUPER privilege, depending on the DEFINER value, as described later in this section.

The minimum requirements for a valid CREATE EVENT statement are as follows:

  • The keywords CREATE EVENT plus an event name, which uniquely identifies the event in a database schema.

  • An ON SCHEDULE clause, which determines when and how often the event executes.

  • A DO clause, which contains the SQL statement to be executed by an event.

This is an example of a minimal CREATE EVENT statement:

CREATE EVENT myevent
    ON SCHEDULE AT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 1 HOUR
    DO
      UPDATE myschema.mytable SET mycol = mycol + 1;

The previous statement creates an event named myevent. This event executes once—one hour following its creation—by running an SQL statement that increments the value of the myschema.mytable table's mycol column by 1.

The event_name must be a valid MySQL identifier with a maximum length of 64 characters. Event names are not case sensitive, so you cannot have two events named myevent and MyEvent in the same schema. In general, the rules governing event names are the same as those for names of stored routines. See Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

An event is associated with a schema. If no schema is indicated as part of event_name, the default (current) schema is assumed. To create an event in a specific schema, qualify the event name with a schema using schema_name.event_name syntax.

The DEFINER clause specifies the MySQL account to be used when checking access privileges at event execution time. If a user value is given, it should be a MySQL account specified as 'user_name'@'host_name', CURRENT_USER, or CURRENT_USER(). The default DEFINER value is the user who executes the CREATE EVENT statement. This is the same as specifying DEFINER = CURRENT_USER explicitly.

If you specify the DEFINER clause, these rules determine the valid DEFINER user values:

  • If you do not have the SUPER privilege, the only permitted user value is your own account, either specified literally or by using CURRENT_USER. You cannot set the definer to some other account.

  • If you have the SUPER privilege, you can specify any syntactically valid account name. If the account does not exist, a warning is generated.

  • Although it is possible to create an event with a nonexistent DEFINER account, an error occurs at event execution time if the account does not exist.

For more information about event security, see Section 23.6, “Access Control for Stored Programs and Views”.

Within an event, the CURRENT_USER() function returns the account used to check privileges at event execution time, which is the DEFINER user. For information about user auditing within events, see Section 6.3.12, “SQL-Based MySQL Account Activity Auditing”.

IF NOT EXISTS has the same meaning for CREATE EVENT as for CREATE TABLE: If an event named event_name already exists in the same schema, no action is taken, and no error results. (However, a warning is generated in such cases.)

The ON SCHEDULE clause determines when, how often, and for how long the event_body defined for the event repeats. This clause takes one of two forms:

  • AT timestamp is used for a one-time event. It specifies that the event executes one time only at the date and time given by timestamp, which must include both the date and time, or must be an expression that resolves to a datetime value. You may use a value of either the DATETIME or TIMESTAMP type for this purpose. If the date is in the past, a warning occurs, as shown here:

    mysql> SELECT NOW();
    +---------------------+
    | NOW()               |
    +---------------------+
    | 2006-02-10 23:59:01 |
    +---------------------+
    1 row in set (0.04 sec)
    
    mysql> CREATE EVENT e_totals
        ->     ON SCHEDULE AT '2006-02-10 23:59:00'
        ->     DO INSERT INTO test.totals VALUES (NOW());
    Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
    *************************** 1. row ***************************
      Level: Note
       Code: 1588
    Message: Event execution time is in the past and ON COMPLETION NOT
             PRESERVE is set. The event was dropped immediately after
             creation.
    

    CREATE EVENT statements which are themselves invalid—for whatever reason—fail with an error.

    You may use CURRENT_TIMESTAMP to specify the current date and time. In such a case, the event acts as soon as it is created.

    To create an event which occurs at some point in the future relative to the current date and time—such as that expressed by the phrase three weeks from now—you can use the optional clause + INTERVAL interval. The interval portion consists of two parts, a quantity and a unit of time, and follows the same syntax rules that govern intervals used in the DATE_ADD() function (see Section 12.7, “Date and Time Functions”. The units keywords are also the same, except that you cannot use any units involving microseconds when defining an event. With some interval types, complex time units may be used. For example, two minutes and ten seconds can be expressed as + INTERVAL '2:10' MINUTE_SECOND.

    You can also combine intervals. For example, AT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 3 WEEK + INTERVAL 2 DAY is equivalent to three weeks and two days from now. Each portion of such a clause must begin with + INTERVAL.

  • To repeat actions at a regular interval, use an EVERY clause. The EVERY keyword is followed by an interval as described in the previous discussion of the AT keyword. (+ INTERVAL is not used with EVERY.) For example, EVERY 6 WEEK means every six weeks.

    Although + INTERVAL clauses are not permitted in an EVERY clause, you can use the same complex time units permitted in a + INTERVAL.

    An EVERY clause may contain an optional STARTS clause. STARTS is followed by a timestamp value that indicates when the action should begin repeating, and may also use + INTERVAL interval to specify an amount of time from now. For example, EVERY 3 MONTH STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 1 WEEK means every three months, beginning one week from now. Similarly, you can express every two weeks, beginning six hours and fifteen minutes from now as EVERY 2 WEEK STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL '6:15' HOUR_MINUTE. Not specifying STARTS is the same as using STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP—that is, the action specified for the event begins repeating immediately upon creation of the event.

    An EVERY clause may contain an optional ENDS clause. The ENDS keyword is followed by a timestamp value that tells MySQL when the event should stop repeating. You may also use + INTERVAL interval with ENDS; for instance, EVERY 12 HOUR STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 30 MINUTE ENDS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 4 WEEK is equivalent to every twelve hours, beginning thirty minutes from now, and ending four weeks from now. Not using ENDS means that the event continues executing indefinitely.

    ENDS supports the same syntax for complex time units as STARTS does.

    You may use STARTS, ENDS, both, or neither in an EVERY clause.

    If a repeating event does not terminate within its scheduling interval, the result may be multiple instances of the event executing simultaneously. If this is undesirable, you should institute a mechanism to prevent simultaneous instances. For example, you could use the GET_LOCK() function, or row or table locking.

The ON SCHEDULE clause may use expressions involving built-in MySQL functions and user variables to obtain any of the timestamp or interval values which it contains. You may not use stored functions or user-defined functions in such expressions, nor may you use any table references; however, you may use SELECT FROM DUAL. This is true for both CREATE EVENT and ALTER EVENT statements. References to stored functions, user-defined functions, and tables in such cases are specifically not permitted, and fail with an error (see Bug #22830).

Times in the ON SCHEDULE clause are interpreted using the current session time_zone value. This becomes the event time zone; that is, the time zone that is used for event scheduling and is in effect within the event as it executes. These times are converted to UTC and stored along with the event time zone in the mysql.event table. This enables event execution to proceed as defined regardless of any subsequent changes to the server time zone or daylight saving time effects. For additional information about representation of event times, see Section 23.4.4, “Event Metadata”. See also Section 13.7.5.18, “SHOW EVENTS Syntax”, and Section 24.7, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA EVENTS Table”.

Normally, once an event has expired, it is immediately dropped. You can override this behavior by specifying ON COMPLETION PRESERVE. Using ON COMPLETION NOT PRESERVE merely makes the default nonpersistent behavior explicit.

You can create an event but prevent it from being active using the DISABLE keyword. Alternatively, you can use ENABLE to make explicit the default status, which is active. This is most useful in conjunction with ALTER EVENT (see Section 13.1.2, “ALTER EVENT Syntax”).

A third value may also appear in place of ENABLE or DISABLE; DISABLE ON SLAVE is set for the status of an event on a replication slave to indicate that the event was created on the master and replicated to the slave, but is not executed on the slave. See Section 16.4.1.12, “Replication of Invoked Features”.

You may supply a comment for an event using a COMMENT clause. comment may be any string of up to 64 characters that you wish to use for describing the event. The comment text, being a string literal, must be surrounded by quotation marks.

The DO clause specifies an action carried by the event, and consists of an SQL statement. Nearly any valid MySQL statement that can be used in a stored routine can also be used as the action statement for a scheduled event. (See Section C.1, “Restrictions on Stored Programs”.) For example, the following event e_hourly deletes all rows from the sessions table once per hour, where this table is part of the site_activity schema:

CREATE EVENT e_hourly
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 1 HOUR
    COMMENT 'Clears out sessions table each hour.'
    DO
      DELETE FROM site_activity.sessions;

MySQL stores the sql_mode system variable setting in effect when an event is created or altered, and always executes the event with this setting in force, regardless of the current server SQL mode when the event begins executing.

A CREATE EVENT statement that contains an ALTER EVENT statement in its DO clause appears to succeed; however, when the server attempts to execute the resulting scheduled event, the execution fails with an error.

Note

Statements such as SELECT or SHOW that merely return a result set have no effect when used in an event; the output from these is not sent to the MySQL Monitor, nor is it stored anywhere. However, you can use statements such as SELECT ... INTO and INSERT INTO ... SELECT that store a result. (See the next example in this section for an instance of the latter.)

The schema to which an event belongs is the default schema for table references in the DO clause. Any references to tables in other schemas must be qualified with the proper schema name.

As with stored routines, you can use compound-statement syntax in the DO clause by using the BEGIN and END keywords, as shown here:

delimiter |

CREATE EVENT e_daily
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 1 DAY
    COMMENT 'Saves total number of sessions then clears the table each day'
    DO
      BEGIN
        INSERT INTO site_activity.totals (time, total)
          SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, COUNT(*)
            FROM site_activity.sessions;
        DELETE FROM site_activity.sessions;
      END |

delimiter ;

This example uses the delimiter command to change the statement delimiter. See Section 23.1, “Defining Stored Programs”.

More complex compound statements, such as those used in stored routines, are possible in an event. This example uses local variables, an error handler, and a flow control construct:

delimiter |

CREATE EVENT e
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 5 SECOND
    DO
      BEGIN
        DECLARE v INTEGER;
        DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR SQLEXCEPTION BEGIN END;

        SET v = 0;

        WHILE v < 5 DO
          INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (0);
          UPDATE t2 SET s1 = s1 + 1;
          SET v = v + 1;
        END WHILE;
    END |

delimiter ;

There is no way to pass parameters directly to or from events; however, it is possible to invoke a stored routine with parameters within an event:

CREATE EVENT e_call_myproc
    ON SCHEDULE
      AT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 1 DAY
    DO CALL myproc(5, 27);

If an event's definer has the SUPER privilege, the event can read and write global variables. As granting this privilege entails a potential for abuse, extreme care must be taken in doing so.

Generally, any statements that are valid in stored routines may be used for action statements executed by events. For more information about statements permissible within stored routines, see Section 23.2.1, “Stored Routine Syntax”. You can create an event as part of a stored routine, but an event cannot be created by another event.

13.1.13 CREATE FUNCTION Syntax

The CREATE FUNCTION statement is used to create stored functions and user-defined functions (UDFs):

13.1.14 CREATE INDEX Syntax

CREATE [UNIQUE|FULLTEXT|SPATIAL] INDEX index_name
    [index_type]
    ON tbl_name (index_col_name,...)
    [index_option]
    [algorithm_option | lock_option] ...

index_col_name:
    col_name [(length)] [ASC | DESC]

index_option:
    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | index_type
  | WITH PARSER parser_name
  | COMMENT 'string'

index_type:
    USING {BTREE | HASH}

algorithm_option:
    ALGORITHM [=] {DEFAULT|INPLACE|COPY}

lock_option:
    LOCK [=] {DEFAULT|NONE|SHARED|EXCLUSIVE}

CREATE INDEX is mapped to an ALTER TABLE statement to create indexes. See Section 13.1.8, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”. CREATE INDEX cannot be used to create a PRIMARY KEY; use ALTER TABLE instead. For more information about indexes, see Section 8.3.1, “How MySQL Uses Indexes”.

Normally, you create all indexes on a table at the time the table itself is created with CREATE TABLE. See Section 13.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”. This guideline is especially important for InnoDB tables, where the primary key determines the physical layout of rows in the data file. CREATE INDEX enables you to add indexes to existing tables.

A column list of the form (col1, col2, ...) creates a multiple-column index. Index key values are formed by concatenating the values of the given columns.

For string columns, indexes can be created that use only the leading part of column values, using col_name(length) syntax to specify an index prefix length:

  • Prefixes can be specified for CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, and VARBINARY column indexes.

  • Prefixes must be specified for BLOB and TEXT column indexes.

  • Prefix limits are measured in bytes, whereas the prefix length in CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, and CREATE INDEX statements is interpreted as number of characters for nonbinary string types (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT) and number of bytes for binary string types (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB). Take this into account when specifying a prefix length for a nonbinary string column that uses a multibyte character set.

  • For spatial columns, prefix values cannot be given, as described later in this section.

The statement shown here creates an index using the first 10 characters of the name column (assuming that name has a nonbinary string type):

CREATE INDEX part_of_name ON customer (name(10));

If names in the column usually differ in the first 10 characters, this index should not be much slower than an index created from the entire name column. Also, using column prefixes for indexes can make the index file much smaller, which could save a lot of disk space and might also speed up INSERT operations.

Prefix support and lengths of prefixes (where supported) are storage engine dependent. For example, a prefix can be up to 767 bytes long for InnoDB tables or 3072 bytes if the innodb_large_prefix option is enabled. For MyISAM tables, the prefix limit is 1000 bytes. The NDB storage engine does not support prefixes (see Section 21.1.6.6, “Unsupported or Missing Features in NDB Cluster”).

NDB Cluster formerly supported online CREATE INDEX operations using an alternative syntax that is no longer supported. NDB Cluster now supports online operations using the same ALGORITHM=INPLACE syntax used with the standard MySQL Server. See Section 13.1.8.2, “ALTER TABLE Online Operations in NDB Cluster”, for more information.

A UNIQUE index creates a constraint such that all values in the index must be distinct. An error occurs if you try to add a new row with a key value that matches an existing row. For all engines, a UNIQUE index permits multiple NULL values for columns that can contain NULL. If you specify a prefix value for a column in a UNIQUE index, the column values must be unique within the prefix.

FULLTEXT indexes are supported only for InnoDB and MyISAM tables and can include only CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns. Indexing always happens over the entire column; column prefix indexing is not supported and any prefix length is ignored if specified. See Section 12.9, “Full-Text Search Functions”, for details of operation.

The MyISAM, InnoDB, NDB, and ARCHIVE storage engines support spatial columns such as (POINT and GEOMETRY. (Section 11.5, “Extensions for Spatial Data”, describes the spatial data types.) However, support for spatial column indexing varies among engines. Spatial and nonspatial indexes are available according to the following rules.

Spatial indexes (created using SPATIAL INDEX) have these characteristics:

  • Available only for MyISAM and InnoDB tables. Specifying SPATIAL INDEX for other storage engines results in an error.

  • Indexed columns must be NOT NULL.

  • Column prefix lengths are prohibited. The full width of each column is indexed.

Characteristics of nonspatial indexes (created with INDEX, UNIQUE, or PRIMARY KEY):

  • Permitted for any storage engine that supports spatial columns except ARCHIVE.

  • Columns can be NULL unless the index is a primary key.

  • For each spatial column in a non-SPATIAL index except POINT columns, a column prefix length must be specified. (This is the same requirement as for indexed BLOB columns.) The prefix length is given in bytes.

  • The index type for a non-SPATIAL index depends on the storage engine. Currently, B-tree is used.

  • You can add an index on a column that can have NULL values only for InnoDB, MyISAM, and MEMORY tables.

  • You can add an index on a BLOB or TEXT column only for using the InnoDB and MyISAM tables.

  • When the innodb_stats_persistent setting is enabled, run the ANALYZE TABLE statement for an InnoDB table after creating an index on that table.

InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual columns. For more information, see Section 13.1.18.9, “Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns”.

An index_col_name specification can end with ASC or DESC. These keywords are permitted for future extensions for specifying ascending or descending index value storage. Currently, they are parsed but ignored; index values are always stored in ascending order.

Following the index column list, index options can be given. An index_option value can be any of the following:

  • KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value

    For MyISAM tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the size in bytes to use for index key blocks. The value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used if necessary. A KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value specified for an individual index definition overrides a table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value.

    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is not supported at the index level for InnoDB tables. See Section 13.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”.

  • index_type

    Some storage engines permit you to specify an index type when creating an index. For example:

    CREATE TABLE lookup (id INT) ENGINE = MEMORY;
    CREATE INDEX id_index ON lookup (id) USING BTREE;
    

    Table 13.1, “Index Types Per Storage Engine” shows the permissible index type values supported by different storage engines. Where multiple index types are listed, the first one is the default when no index type specifier is given. Storage engines not listed in the table do not support an index_type clause in index definitions.

    Table 13.1 Index Types Per Storage Engine

    Storage EnginePermissible Index Types
    InnoDBBTREE
    MyISAMBTREE
    MEMORY/HEAPHASH, BTREE
    NDBHASH, BTREE (see note in text)

    The index_type clause cannot be used for FULLTEXT INDEX or SPATIAL INDEX specifications. Full-text index implementation is storage engine dependent. Spatial indexes are implemented as R-tree indexes.

    BTREE indexes are implemented by the NDB storage engine as T-tree indexes.

    Note

    For indexes on NDB table columns, the USING option can be specified only for a unique index or primary key. USING HASH prevents the creation of an ordered index; otherwise, creating a unique index or primary key on an NDB table automatically results in the creation of both an ordered index and a hash index, each of which indexes the same set of columns.

    For unique indexes that include one or more NULL columns of an NDB table, the hash index can be used only to look up literal values, which means that IS [NOT] NULL conditions require a full scan of the table. One workaround is to make sure that a unique index using one or more NULL columns on such a table is always created in such a way that it includes the ordered index; that is, avoid employing USING HASH when creating the index.

    If you specify an index type that is not valid for a given storage engine, but another index type is available that the engine can use without affecting query results, the engine uses the available type. The parser recognizes RTREE as a type name, but currently this cannot be specified for any storage engine.

    Note

    Use of the index_type option before the ON tbl_name clause is deprecated; support for use of the option in this position will be removed in a future MySQL release. If an index_type option is given in both the earlier and later positions, the final option applies.

    TYPE type_name is recognized as a synonym for USING type_name. However, USING is the preferred form.

    For the storage engines that support an index_type option, Table 13.2, “Storage Engine Index Characteristics” shows some characteristics of index use.

    Table 13.2 Storage Engine Index Characteristics

    Storage EngineIndex TypeIndex ClassStores NULL ValuesPermits Multiple NULL ValuesIS NULL Scan TypeIS NOT NULL Scan Type
    InnoDBBTREEPrimary keyNoNoN/AN/A
    UniqueYesYesIndexIndex
    KeyYesYesIndexIndex
    InapplicableFULLTEXTYesYesTableTable
    InapplicableSPATIALNoNoN/AN/A
    MyISAMBTREEPrimary keyNoNoN/AN/A
    UniqueYesYesIndexIndex
    KeyYesYesIndexIndex
    InapplicableFULLTEXTYesYesTableTable
    InapplicableSPATIALNoNoN/AN/A
    MEMORYHASHPrimary keyNoNoN/AN/A
    UniqueYesYesIndexIndex
    KeyYesYesIndexIndex
    BTREEPrimaryNoNoN/AN/A
    UniqueYesYesIndexIndex
    KeyYesYesIndexIndex
    NDBBTREEPrimary keyNoNoIndexIndex
    UniqueYesYesIndexIndex
    KeyYesYesIndexIndex
    HASHPrimaryNoNoTable (see note 1)Table (see note 1)
    UniqueYesYesTable (see note 1)Table (see note 1)
    KeyYesYesTable (see note 1)Table (see note 1)

    Table note:

    1. If USING HASH is specified that prevents creation of an implicit ordered index.

  • WITH PARSER parser_name

    This option can be used only with FULLTEXT indexes. It associates a parser plugin with the index if full-text indexing and searching operations need special handling. InnoDB and MyISAM support full-text parser plugins. See Full-Text Parser Plugins and Section 28.2.4.4, “Writing Full-Text Parser Plugins” for more information.

  • COMMENT 'string'

    Index definitions can include an optional comment of up to 1024 characters.

    The MERGE_THRESHOLD for index pages can be configured for individual indexes using the index_option COMMENT clause of the CREATE INDEX statement. For example:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (id INT);
    CREATE INDEX id_index ON t1 (id) COMMENT 'MERGE_THRESHOLD=40';

    If the page-full percentage for an index page falls below the MERGE_THRESHOLD value when a row is deleted or when a row is shortened by an update operation, InnoDB attempts to merge the index page with a neighboring index page. The default MERGE_THRESHOLD value is 50, which is the previously hardcoded value.

    MERGE_THRESHOLD can also be defined at the index level and table level using CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements. For more information, see Section 14.6.13, “Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages”.

ALGORITHM and LOCK clauses may be given to influence the table copying method and level of concurrency for reading and writing the table while its indexes are being modified. They have the same meaning as for the ALTER TABLE statement. For more information, see Section 13.1.8, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”

13.1.15 CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax

CREATE LOGFILE GROUP logfile_group
    ADD UNDOFILE 'undo_file'
    [INITIAL_SIZE [=] initial_size]
    [UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE [=] undo_buffer_size]
    [REDO_BUFFER_SIZE [=] redo_buffer_size]
    [NODEGROUP [=] nodegroup_id]
    [WAIT]
    [COMMENT [=] comment_text]
    ENGINE [=] engine_name

This statement creates a new log file group named logfile_group having a single UNDO file named 'undo_file'. A CREATE LOGFILE GROUP statement has one and only one ADD UNDOFILE clause. For rules covering the naming of log file groups, see Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

Note

All NDB Cluster Disk Data objects share the same namespace. This means that each Disk Data object must be uniquely named (and not merely each Disk Data object of a given type). For example, you cannot have a tablespace and a log file group with the same name, or a tablespace and a data file with the same name.

There can be only one log file group per NDB Cluster instance at any given time.

The optional INITIAL_SIZE parameter sets the UNDO file's initial size; if not specified, it defaults to 128M (128 megabytes). The optional UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE parameter sets the size used by the UNDO buffer for the log file group; The default value for UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE is 8M (eight megabytes); this value cannot exceed the amount of system memory available. Both of these parameters are specified in bytes. You may optionally follow either or both of these with a one-letter abbreviation for an order of magnitude, similar to those used in my.cnf. Generally, this is one of the letters M (for megabytes) or G (for gigabytes).

Memory used for UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE comes from the global pool whose size is determined by the value of the SharedGlobalMemory data node configuration parameter. This includes any default value implied for this option by the setting of the InitialLogFileGroup data node configuration parameter.

The maximum permitted for UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE is 629145600 (600 MB).

On 32-bit systems, the maximum supported value for INITIAL_SIZE is 4294967296 (4 GB). (Bug #29186)

The minimum allowed value for INITIAL_SIZE is 1048576 (1 MB).

The ENGINE option determines the storage engine to be used by this log file group, with engine_name being the name of the storage engine. In MySQL 5.7, this must be NDB (or NDBCLUSTER). If ENGINE is not set, MySQL tries to use the engine specified by the default_storage_engine server system variable (formerly storage_engine). In any case, if the engine is not specified as NDB or NDBCLUSTER, the CREATE LOGFILE GROUP statement appears to succeed but actually fails to create the log file group, as shown here:

mysql> CREATE LOGFILE GROUP lg1
    ->     ADD UNDOFILE 'undo.dat' INITIAL_SIZE = 10M;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
+-------+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Level | Code | Message                                                                                        |
+-------+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Error | 1478 | Table storage engine 'InnoDB' does not support the create option 'TABLESPACE or LOGFILE GROUP' |
+-------+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> DROP LOGFILE GROUP lg1 ENGINE = NDB;            
ERROR 1529 (HY000): Failed to drop LOGFILE GROUP

mysql> CREATE LOGFILE GROUP lg1
    ->     ADD UNDOFILE 'undo.dat' INITIAL_SIZE = 10M
    ->     ENGINE = NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (2.97 sec)

The fact that the CREATE LOGFILE GROUP statement does not actually return an error when a non-NDB storage engine is named, but rather appears to succeed, is a known issue which we hope to address in a future release of NDB Cluster.

REDO_BUFFER_SIZE, NODEGROUP, WAIT, and COMMENT are parsed but ignored, and so have no effect in MySQL 5.7. These options are intended for future expansion.

When used with ENGINE [=] NDB, a log file group and associated UNDO log file are created on each Cluster data node. You can verify that the UNDO files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table. For example:

mysql> SELECT LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME, LOGFILE_GROUP_NUMBER, EXTRA
    -> FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
    -> WHERE FILE_NAME = 'undo_10.dat';
+--------------------+----------------------+----------------+
| LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME | LOGFILE_GROUP_NUMBER | EXTRA          |
+--------------------+----------------------+----------------+
| lg_3               |                   11 | CLUSTER_NODE=3 |
| lg_3               |                   11 | CLUSTER_NODE=4 |
+--------------------+----------------------+----------------+
2 rows in set (0.06 sec)

CREATE LOGFILE GROUP is useful only with Disk Data storage for NDB Cluster. See Section 21.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”.

13.1.16 CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax

CREATE
    [DEFINER = { user | CURRENT_USER }]
    PROCEDURE sp_name ([proc_parameter[,...]])
    [characteristic ...] routine_body

CREATE
    [DEFINER = { user | CURRENT_USER }]
    FUNCTION sp_name ([func_parameter[,...]])
    RETURNS type
    [characteristic ...] routine_body

proc_parameter:
    [ IN | OUT | INOUT ] param_name type

func_parameter:
    param_name type

type:
    Any valid MySQL data type

characteristic:
    COMMENT 'string'
  | LANGUAGE SQL
  | [NOT] DETERMINISTIC
  | { CONTAINS SQL | NO SQL | READS SQL DATA | MODIFIES SQL DATA }
  | SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }

routine_body:
    Valid SQL routine statement

These statements create stored routines. By default, a routine is associated with the default database. To associate the routine explicitly with a given database, specify the name as db_name.sp_name when you create it.

The CREATE FUNCTION statement is also used in MySQL to support UDFs (user-defined functions). See Section 28.4, “Adding New Functions to MySQL”. A UDF can be regarded as an external stored function. Stored functions share their namespace with UDFs. See Section 9.2.4, “Function Name Parsing and Resolution”, for the rules describing how the server interprets references to different kinds of functions.

To invoke a stored procedure, use the CALL statement (see Section 13.2.1, “CALL Syntax”). To invoke a stored function, refer to it in an expression. The function returns a value during expression evaluation.

CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION require the CREATE ROUTINE privilege. They might also require the SUPER privilege, depending on the DEFINER value, as described later in this section. If binary logging is enabled, CREATE FUNCTION might require the SUPER privilege, as described in Section 23.7, “Binary Logging of Stored Programs”.

By default, MySQL automatically grants the ALTER ROUTINE and EXECUTE privileges to the routine creator. This behavior can be changed by disabling the automatic_sp_privileges system variable. See Section 23.2.2, “Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges”.

The DEFINER and SQL SECURITY clauses specify the security context to be used when checking access privileges at routine execution time, as described later in this section.

If the routine name is the same as the name of a built-in SQL function, a syntax error occurs unless you use a space between the name and the following parenthesis when defining the routine or invoking it later. For this reason, avoid using the names of existing SQL functions for your own stored routines.

The IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode applies to built-in functions, not to stored routines. It is always permissible to have spaces after a stored routine name, regardless of whether IGNORE_SPACE is enabled.

The parameter list enclosed within parentheses must always be present. If there are no parameters, an empty parameter list of () should be used. Parameter names are not case sensitive.

Each parameter is an IN parameter by default. To specify otherwise for a parameter, use the keyword OUT or INOUT before the parameter name.

Note

Specifying a parameter as IN, OUT, or INOUT is valid only for a PROCEDURE. For a FUNCTION, parameters are always regarded as IN parameters.

An IN parameter passes a value into a procedure. The procedure might modify the value, but the modification is not visible to the caller when the procedure returns. An OUT parameter passes a value from the procedure back to the caller. Its initial value is NULL within the procedure, and its value is visible to the caller when the procedure returns. An INOUT parameter is initialized by the caller, can be modified by the procedure, and any change made by the procedure is visible to the caller when the procedure returns.

For each OUT or INOUT parameter, pass a user-defined variable in the CALL statement that invokes the procedure so that you can obtain its value when the procedure returns. If you are calling the procedure from within another stored procedure or function, you can also pass a routine parameter or local routine variable as an IN or INOUT parameter.

Routine parameters cannot be referenced in statements prepared within the routine; see Section C.1, “Restrictions on Stored Programs”.

The following example shows a simple stored procedure that uses an OUT parameter:

mysql> delimiter //

mysql> CREATE PROCEDURE simpleproc (OUT param1 INT)
    -> BEGIN
    ->   SELECT COUNT(*) INTO param1 FROM t;
    -> END//
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> delimiter ;

mysql> CALL simpleproc(@a);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT @a;
+------+
| @a   |
+------+
| 3    |
+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The example uses the mysql client delimiter command to change the statement delimiter from ; to // while the procedure is being defined. This enables the ; delimiter used in the procedure body to be passed through to the server rather than being interpreted by mysql itself. See Section 23.1, “Defining Stored Programs”.

The RETURNS clause may be specified only for a FUNCTION, for which it is mandatory. It indicates the return type of the function, and the function body must contain a RETURN value statement. If the RETURN statement returns a value of a different type, the value is coerced to the proper type. For example, if a function specifies an ENUM or SET value in the RETURNS clause, but the RETURN statement returns an integer, the value returned from the function is the string for the corresponding ENUM member of set of SET members.

The following example function takes a parameter, performs an operation using an SQL function, and returns the result. In this case, it is unnecessary to use delimiter because the function definition contains no internal ; statement delimiters:

mysql> CREATE FUNCTION hello (s CHAR(20))
mysql> RETURNS CHAR(50) DETERMINISTIC
    -> RETURN CONCAT('Hello, ',s,'!');
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT hello('world');
+----------------+
| hello('world') |
+----------------+
| Hello, world!  |
+----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Parameter types and function return types can be declared to use any valid data type. The COLLATE attribute can be used if preceded by the CHARACTER SET attribute.

The routine_body consists of a valid SQL routine statement. This can be a simple statement such as SELECT or INSERT, or a compound statement written using BEGIN and END. Compound statements can contain declarations, loops, and other control structure statements. The syntax for these statements is described in Section 13.6, “Compound-Statement Syntax”.

MySQL permits routines to contain DDL statements, such as CREATE and DROP. MySQL also permits stored procedures (but not stored functions) to contain SQL transaction statements such as COMMIT. Stored functions may not contain statements that perform explicit or implicit commit or rollback. Support for these statements is not required by the SQL standard, which states that each DBMS vendor may decide whether to permit them.

Statements that return a result set can be used within a stored procedure but not within a stored function. This prohibition includes SELECT statements that do not have an INTO var_list clause and other statements such as SHOW, EXPLAIN, and CHECK TABLE. For statements that can be determined at function definition time to return a result set, a Not allowed to return a result set from a function error occurs (ER_SP_NO_RETSET). For statements that can be determined only at runtime to return a result set, a PROCEDURE %s can't return a result set in the given context error occurs (ER_SP_BADSELECT).

USE statements within stored routines are not permitted. When a routine is invoked, an implicit USE db_name is performed (and undone when the routine terminates). The causes the routine to have the given default database while it executes. References to objects in databases other than the routine default database should be qualified with the appropriate database name.

For additional information about statements that are not permitted in stored routines, see Section C.1, “Restrictions on Stored Programs”.

For information about invoking stored procedures from within programs written in a language that has a MySQL interface, see Section 13.2.1, “CALL Syntax”.

MySQL stores the sql_mode system variable setting in effect when a routine is created or altered, and always executes the routine with this setting in force, regardless of the current server SQL mode when the routine begins executing.

The switch from the SQL mode of the invoker to that of the routine occurs after evaluation of arguments and assignment of the resulting values to routine parameters. If you define a routine in strict SQL mode but invoke it in nonstrict mode, assignment of arguments to routine parameters does not take place in strict mode. If you require that expressions passed to a routine be assigned in strict SQL mode, you should invoke the routine with strict mode in effect.

The COMMENT characteristic is a MySQL extension, and may be used to describe the stored routine. This information is displayed by the SHOW CREATE PROCEDURE and SHOW CREATE FUNCTION statements.

The LANGUAGE characteristic indicates the language in which the routine is written. The server ignores this characteristic; only SQL routines are supported.

A routine is considered deterministic if it always produces the same result for the same input parameters, and not deterministic otherwise. If neither DETERMINISTIC nor NOT DETERMINISTIC is given in the routine definition, the default is NOT DETERMINISTIC. To declare that a function is deterministic, you must specify DETERMINISTIC explicitly.

Assessment of the nature of a routine is based on the honesty of the creator: MySQL does not check that a routine declared DETERMINISTIC is free of statements that produce nondeterministic results. However, misdeclaring a routine might affect results or affect performance. Declaring a nondeterministic routine as DETERMINISTIC might lead to unexpected results by causing the optimizer to make incorrect execution plan choices. Declaring a deterministic routine as NONDETERMINISTIC might diminish performance by causing available optimizations not to be used.

If binary logging is enabled, the DETERMINISTIC characteristic affects which routine definitions MySQL accepts. See Section 23.7, “Binary Logging of Stored Programs”.

A routine that contains the NOW() function (or its synonyms) or RAND() is nondeterministic, but it might still be replication-safe. For NOW(), the binary log includes the timestamp and replicates correctly. RAND() also replicates correctly as long as it is called only a single time during the execution of a routine. (You can consider the routine execution timestamp and random number seed as implicit inputs that are identical on the master and slave.)

Several characteristics provide information about the nature of data use by the routine. In MySQL, these characteristics are advisory only. The server does not use them to constrain what kinds of statements a routine will be permitted to execute.

  • CONTAINS SQL indicates that the routine does not contain statements that read or write data. This is the default if none of these characteristics is given explicitly. Examples of such statements are SET @x = 1 or DO RELEASE_LOCK('abc'), which execute but neither read nor write data.

  • NO SQL indicates that the routine contains no SQL statements.

  • READS SQL DATA indicates that the routine contains statements that read data (for example, SELECT), but not statements that write data.

  • MODIFIES SQL DATA indicates that the routine contains statements that may write data (for example, INSERT or DELETE).

The SQL SECURITY characteristic can be DEFINER or INVOKER to specify the security context; that is, whether the routine executes using the privileges of the account named in the routine DEFINER clause or the user who invokes it. This account must have permission to access the database with which the routine is associated. The default value is DEFINER. The user who invokes the routine must have the EXECUTE privilege for it, as must the DEFINER account if the routine executes in definer security context.

The DEFINER clause specifies the MySQL account to be used when checking access privileges at routine execution time for routines that have the SQL SECURITY DEFINER characteristic.

If a user value is given for the DEFINER clause, it should be a MySQL account specified as 'user_name'@'host_name', CURRENT_USER, or CURRENT_USER(). The default DEFINER value is the user who executes the CREATE PROCEDURE or CREATE FUNCTION statement. This is the same as specifying DEFINER = CURRENT_USER explicitly.

If you specify the DEFINER clause, these rules determine the valid DEFINER user values:

  • If you do not have the SUPER privilege, the only permitted user value is your own account, either specified literally or by using CURRENT_USER. You cannot set the definer to some other account.

  • If you have the SUPER privilege, you can specify any syntactically valid account name. If the account does not exist, a warning is generated.

  • Although it is possible to create a routine with a nonexistent DEFINER account, an error occurs at routine execution time if the SQL SECURITY value is DEFINER but the definer account does not exist.

For more information about stored routine security, see Section 23.6, “Access Control for Stored Programs and Views”.

Within a stored routine that is defined with the SQL SECURITY DEFINER characteristic, CURRENT_USER returns the routine's DEFINER value. For information about user auditing within stored routines, see Section 6.3.12, “SQL-Based MySQL Account Activity Auditing”.

Consider the following procedure, which displays a count of the number of MySQL accounts listed in the mysql.user table:

CREATE DEFINER = 'admin'@'localhost' PROCEDURE account_count()
BEGIN
  SELECT 'Number of accounts:', COUNT(*) FROM mysql.user;
END;

The procedure is assigned a DEFINER account of 'admin'@'localhost' no matter which user defines it. It executes with the privileges of that account no matter which user invokes it (because the default security characteristic is DEFINER). The procedure succeeds or fails depending on whether invoker has the EXECUTE privilege for it and 'admin'@'localhost' has the SELECT privilege for the mysql.user table.

Now suppose that the procedure is defined with the SQL SECURITY INVOKER characteristic:

CREATE DEFINER = 'admin'@'localhost' PROCEDURE account_count()
SQL SECURITY INVOKER
BEGIN
  SELECT 'Number of accounts:', COUNT(*) FROM mysql.user;
END;

The procedure still has a DEFINER of 'admin'@'localhost', but in this case, it executes with the privileges of the invoking user. Thus, the procedure succeeds or fails depending on whether the invoker has the EXECUTE privilege for it and the SELECT privilege for the mysql.user table.

The server handles the data type of a routine parameter, local routine variable created with DECLARE, or function return value as follows:

  • Assignments are checked for data type mismatches and overflow. Conversion and overflow problems result in warnings, or errors in strict SQL mode.

  • Only scalar values can be assigned. For example, a statement such as SET x = (SELECT 1, 2) is invalid.

  • For character data types, if there is a CHARACTER SET attribute in the declaration, the specified character set and its default collation is used. If the COLLATE attribute is also present, that collation is used rather than the default collation.

    If CHARACTER SET and COLLATE attributes are not present, the database character set and collation in effect at routine creation time are used. To avoid having the server use the database character set and collation, provide explicit CHARACTER SET and COLLATE attributes for character data parameters.

    If you change the database default character set or collation, stored routines that use the database defaults must be dropped and recreated so that they use the new defaults.

    The database character set and collation are given by the value of the character_set_database and collation_database system variables. For more information, see Section 10.1.3.3, “Database Character Set and Collation”.

13.1.17 CREATE SERVER Syntax

CREATE SERVER server_name
    FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER wrapper_name
    OPTIONS (option [, option] ...)

option:
  { HOST character-literal
  | DATABASE character-literal
  | USER character-literal
  | PASSWORD character-literal
  | SOCKET character-literal
  | OWNER character-literal
  | PORT numeric-literal }

This statement creates the definition of a server for use with the FEDERATED storage engine. The CREATE SERVER statement creates a new row in the servers table in the mysql database. This statement requires the SUPER privilege.

The server_name should be a unique reference to the server. Server definitions are global within the scope of the server, it is not possible to qualify the server definition to a specific database. server_name has a maximum length of 64 characters (names longer than 64 characters are silently truncated), and is case insensitive. You may specify the name as a quoted string.

The wrapper_name should be mysql, and may be quoted with single quotation marks. Other values for wrapper_name are not currently supported.

For each option you must specify either a character literal or numeric literal. Character literals are UTF-8, support a maximum length of 64 characters and default to a blank (empty) string. String literals are silently truncated to 64 characters. Numeric literals must be a number between 0 and 9999, default value is 0.

Note

The OWNER option is currently not applied, and has no effect on the ownership or operation of the server connection that is created.

The CREATE SERVER statement creates an entry in the mysql.servers table that can later be used with the CREATE TABLE statement when creating a FEDERATED table. The options that you specify will be used to populate the columns in the mysql.servers table. The table columns are Server_name, Host, Db, Username, Password, Port and Socket.

For example:

CREATE SERVER s
FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER mysql
OPTIONS (USER 'Remote', HOST '192.168.1.106', DATABASE 'test');

Be sure to specify all options necessary to establish a connection to the server. The user name, host name, and database name are mandatory. Other options might be required as well, such as password.

The data stored in the table can be used when creating a connection to a FEDERATED table:

CREATE TABLE t (s1 INT) ENGINE=FEDERATED CONNECTION='s';

For more information, see Section 15.8, “The FEDERATED Storage Engine”.

CREATE SERVER causes an implicit commit. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

CREATE SERVER is not written to the binary log, regardless of the logging format that is in use.

13.1.18 CREATE TABLE Syntax

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    (create_definition,...)
    [table_options]
    [partition_options]

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    [(create_definition,...)]
    [table_options]
    [partition_options]
    [IGNORE | REPLACE]
    [AS] query_expression

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    { LIKE old_tbl_name | (LIKE old_tbl_name) }

create_definition:
    col_name column_definition
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] PRIMARY KEY [index_type] (index_col_name,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | {INDEX|KEY} [index_name] [index_type] (index_col_name,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] UNIQUE [INDEX|KEY]
      [index_name] [index_type] (index_col_name,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | {FULLTEXT|SPATIAL} [INDEX|KEY] [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY
      [index_name] (index_col_name,...) reference_definition
  | CHECK (expr)

column_definition:
    data_type [NOT NULL | NULL] [DEFAULT default_value]
      [AUTO_INCREMENT] [UNIQUE [KEY] | [PRIMARY] KEY]
      [COMMENT 'string']
      [COLUMN_FORMAT {FIXED|DYNAMIC|DEFAULT}]
      [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY|DEFAULT}]
      [reference_definition]
  | data_type [GENERATED ALWAYS] AS (expression)
      [VIRTUAL | STORED] [UNIQUE [KEY]] [COMMENT comment]
      [NOT NULL | NULL] [[PRIMARY] KEY]

data_type:
    BIT[(length)]
  | TINYINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | SMALLINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | MEDIUMINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | INT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | INTEGER[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | BIGINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | REAL[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | DOUBLE[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | FLOAT[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | DECIMAL[(length[,decimals])] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | NUMERIC[(length[,decimals])] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
  | DATE
  | TIME[(fsp)]
  | TIMESTAMP[(fsp)]
  | DATETIME[(fsp)]
  | YEAR
  | CHAR[(length)] [BINARY]
      [CHARACTER SET charset_name] [COLLATE collation_name]
  | VARCHAR(length) [BINARY]
      [CHARACTER SET charset_name] [COLLATE collation_name]
  | BINARY[(length)]
  | VARBINARY(length)
  | TINYBLOB
  | BLOB
  | MEDIUMBLOB
  | LONGBLOB
  | TINYTEXT [BINARY]
      [CHARACTER SET charset_name] [COLLATE collation_name]
  | TEXT [BINARY]
      [CHARACTER SET charset_name] [COLLATE collation_name]
  | MEDIUMTEXT [BINARY]
      [CHARACTER SET charset_name] [COLLATE collation_name]
  | LONGTEXT [BINARY]
      [CHARACTER SET charset_name] [COLLATE collation_name]
  | ENUM(value1,value2,value3,...)
      [CHARACTER SET charset_name] [COLLATE collation_name]
  | SET(value1,value2,value3,...)
      [CHARACTER SET charset_name] [COLLATE collation_name]
  | JSON
  | spatial_type

index_col_name:
    col_name [(length)] [ASC | DESC]

index_type:
    USING {BTREE | HASH}

index_option:
    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | index_type
  | WITH PARSER parser_name
  | COMMENT 'string'

reference_definition:
    REFERENCES tbl_name (index_col_name,...)
      [MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE]
      [ON DELETE reference_option]
      [ON UPDATE reference_option]

reference_option:
    RESTRICT | CASCADE | SET NULL | NO ACTION | SET DEFAULT

table_options:
    table_option [[,] table_option] ...

table_option:
    AUTO_INCREMENT [=] value
  | AVG_ROW_LENGTH [=] value
  | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | CHECKSUM [=] {0 | 1}
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name
  | COMMENT [=] 'string'
  | COMPRESSION [=] {'ZLIB'|'LZ4'|'NONE'}
  | CONNECTION [=] 'connect_string'
  | {DATA|INDEX} DIRECTORY [=] 'absolute path to directory'
  | DELAY_KEY_WRITE [=] {0 | 1}
  | ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}
  | ENGINE [=] engine_name
  | INSERT_METHOD [=] { NO | FIRST | LAST }
  | KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | MAX_ROWS [=] value
  | MIN_ROWS [=] value
  | PACK_KEYS [=] {0 | 1 | DEFAULT}
  | PASSWORD [=] 'string'
  | ROW_FORMAT [=] {DEFAULT|DYNAMIC|FIXED|COMPRESSED|REDUNDANT|COMPACT}
  | STATS_AUTO_RECALC [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_PERSISTENT [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES [=] value
  | TABLESPACE tablespace_name [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY|DEFAULT}]
  | UNION [=] (tbl_name[,tbl_name]...)

partition_options:
    PARTITION BY
        { [LINEAR] HASH(expr)
        | [LINEAR] KEY [ALGORITHM={1|2}] (column_list)
        | RANGE{(expr) | COLUMNS(column_list)}
        | LIST{(expr) | COLUMNS(column_list)} }
    [PARTITIONS num]
    [SUBPARTITION BY
        { [LINEAR] HASH(expr)
        | [LINEAR] KEY [ALGORITHM={1|2}] (column_list) }
      [SUBPARTITIONS num]
    ]
    [(partition_definition [, partition_definition] ...)]

partition_definition:
    PARTITION partition_name
        [VALUES
            {LESS THAN {(expr | value_list) | MAXVALUE}
            |
            IN (value_list)}]
        [[STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name]
        [COMMENT [=] 'comment_text' ]
        [DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'data_dir']
        [INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'index_dir']
        [MAX_ROWS [=] max_number_of_rows]
        [MIN_ROWS [=] min_number_of_rows]
        [TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name]
        [(subpartition_definition [, subpartition_definition] ...)]

subpartition_definition:
    SUBPARTITION logical_name
        [[STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name]
        [COMMENT [=] 'comment_text' ]
        [DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'data_dir']
        [INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'index_dir']
        [MAX_ROWS [=] max_number_of_rows]
        [MIN_ROWS [=] min_number_of_rows]
        [TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name]

query_expression:
    SELECT ...   (Some valid select or union statement)

CREATE TABLE creates a table with the given name. You must have the CREATE privilege for the table.

By default, tables are created in the default database, using the InnoDB storage engine. An error occurs if the table exists, if there is no default database, or if the database does not exist.

For information about the physical representation of a table, see Section 13.1.18.2, “Files Created by CREATE TABLE”.

The original CREATE TABLE statement, including all specifications and table options are stored by MySQL when the table is created. For more information, see Section 13.1.18.1, “CREATE TABLE Statement Retention”.

There are several aspects to the CREATE TABLE statement, described under the following topics in this section:

Table Name

  • tbl_name

    The table name can be specified as db_name.tbl_name to create the table in a specific database. This works regardless of whether there is a default database, assuming that the database exists. If you use quoted identifiers, quote the database and table names separately. For example, write `mydb`.`mytbl`, not `mydb.mytbl`.

    Rules for permissible table names are given in Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

  • IF NOT EXISTS

    Prevents an error from occurring if the table exists. However, there is no verification that the existing table has a structure identical to that indicated by the CREATE TABLE statement.

Temporary Tables

You can use the TEMPORARY keyword when creating a table. A TEMPORARY table is visible only within the current session, and is dropped automatically when the session is closed. For more information, see Section 13.1.18.3, “CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE Syntax”.

Cloning or Copying a Table

Column Data Types and Attributes

There is a hard limit of 4096 columns per table, but the effective maximum may be less for a given table and depends on the factors discussed in Section C.10.4, “Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size”.

  • data_type

    data_type represents the data type in a column definition. spatial_type represents a spatial data type. The data type syntax shown is representative only. For a full description of the syntax available for specifying column data types, as well as information about the properties of each type, see Chapter 11, Data Types, and Section 11.5, “Extensions for Spatial Data”. Beginning with MySQL 5.7.8, a JSON data type is also supported for table columns; see Section 11.6, “The JSON Data Type”, for more information.

    • Some attributes do not apply to all data types. AUTO_INCREMENT applies only to integer and floating-point types. DEFAULT does not apply to the BLOB, TEXT, GEOMETRY, and JSON types.

    • Character data types (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT) can include CHARACTER SET and COLLATE attributes to specify the character set and collation for the column. For details, see Section 10.1, “Character Set Support”. CHARSET is a synonym for CHARACTER SET. Example:

      CREATE TABLE t (c CHAR(20) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin);
      

      MySQL 5.7 interprets length specifications in character column definitions in characters. Lengths for BINARY and VARBINARY are in bytes.

    • For CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, and VARBINARY columns, indexes can be created that use only the leading part of column values, using col_name(length) syntax to specify an index prefix length. BLOB and TEXT columns also can be indexed, but a prefix length must be given. Prefix lengths are given in characters for nonbinary string types and in bytes for binary string types. That is, index entries consist of the first length characters of each column value for CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns, and the first length bytes of each column value for BINARY, VARBINARY, and BLOB columns. Indexing only a prefix of column values like this can make the index file much smaller. For additional information about index prefixes, see Section 13.1.14, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”.

      Only the InnoDB and MyISAM storage engines support indexing on BLOB and TEXT columns. For example:

      CREATE TABLE test (blob_col BLOB, INDEX(blob_col(10)));
      
    • JSON columns cannot be indexed. You can work around this restriction by creating an index on a generated column that extracts a scalar value from the JSON column. See Indexing a Generated Column to Provide a JSON Column Index, for a detailed example.

  • NOT NULL | NULL

    If neither NULL nor NOT NULL is specified, the column is treated as though NULL had been specified.

    In MySQL 5.7, only the InnoDB, MyISAM, and MEMORY storage engines support indexes on columns that can have NULL values. In other cases, you must declare indexed columns as NOT NULL or an error results.

  • DEFAULT

    Specifies a default value for a column. With one exception, the default value must be a constant; it cannot be a function or an expression. This means, for example, that you cannot set the default for a date column to be the value of a function such as NOW() or CURRENT_DATE. The exception is that you can specify CURRENT_TIMESTAMP as the default for a TIMESTAMP or DATETIME column. See Section 11.3.5, “Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP and DATETIME”.

    If a column definition includes no explicit DEFAULT value, MySQL determines the default value as described in Section 11.7, “Data Type Default Values”.

    BLOB, TEXT, and JSON columns cannot be assigned a default value.

    If the NO_ZERO_DATE or NO_ZERO_IN_DATE SQL mode is enabled and a date-valued default is not correct according to that mode, CREATE TABLE produces a warning if strict SQL mode is not enabled and an error if strict mode is enabled. For example, with NO_ZERO_IN_DATE enabled, c1 DATE DEFAULT '2010-00-00' produces a warning.

  • AUTO_INCREMENT

    An integer or floating-point column can have the additional attribute AUTO_INCREMENT. When you insert a value of NULL (recommended) or 0 into an indexed AUTO_INCREMENT column, the column is set to the next sequence value. Typically this is value+1, where value is the largest value for the column currently in the table. AUTO_INCREMENT sequences begin with 1.

    To retrieve an AUTO_INCREMENT value after inserting a row, use the LAST_INSERT_ID() SQL function or the mysql_insert_id() C API function. See Section 12.14, “Information Functions”, and Section 27.8.7.38, “mysql_insert_id()”.

    If the NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO SQL mode is enabled, you can store 0 in AUTO_INCREMENT columns as 0 without generating a new sequence value. See Section 5.1.8, “Server SQL Modes”.

    There can be only one AUTO_INCREMENT column per table, it must be indexed, and it cannot have a DEFAULT value. An AUTO_INCREMENT column works properly only if it contains only positive values. Inserting a negative number is regarded as inserting a very large positive number. This is done to avoid precision problems when numbers wrap over from positive to negative and also to ensure that you do not accidentally get an AUTO_INCREMENT column that contains 0.

    For MyISAM tables, you can specify an AUTO_INCREMENT secondary column in a multiple-column key. See Section 3.6.9, “Using AUTO_INCREMENT”.

    To make MySQL compatible with some ODBC applications, you can find the AUTO_INCREMENT value for the last inserted row with the following query:

    SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE auto_col IS NULL
    

    This method requires that sql_auto_is_null variable is not set to 0. See Section 5.1.5, “Server System Variables”.

    For information about InnoDB and AUTO_INCREMENT, see Section 14.8.1.5, “AUTO_INCREMENT Handling in InnoDB”. For information about AUTO_INCREMENT and MySQL Replication, see Section 16.4.1.1, “Replication and AUTO_INCREMENT”.

  • COMMENT

    A comment for a column can be specified with the COMMENT option, up to 1024 characters long. The comment is displayed by the SHOW CREATE TABLE and SHOW FULL COLUMNS statements.

  • COLUMN_FORMAT

    In NDB Cluster, it is also possible to specify a data storage format for individual columns of NDB tables using COLUMN_FORMAT. Permissible column formats are FIXED, DYNAMIC, and DEFAULT. FIXED is used to specify fixed-width storage, DYNAMIC permits the column to be variable-width, and DEFAULT causes the column to use fixed-width or variable-width storage as determined by the column's data type (possibly overridden by a ROW_FORMAT specifier).

    Beginning with MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.4, for NDB tables, the default value for COLUMN_FORMAT is FIXED. (The default had been switched to DYNAMIC in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.1, but this change was reverted to maintain backwards compatibility with existing GA release series.) (Bug #24487363)

    COLUMN_FORMAT currently has no effect on columns of tables using storage engines other than NDB. In MySQL 5.7 and later, COLUMN_FORMAT is silently ignored.

  • STORAGE

    For NDB tables, it is possible to specify whether the column is stored on disk or in memory by using a STORAGE clause. STORAGE DISK causes the column to be stored on disk, and STORAGE MEMORY causes in-memory storage to be used. The CREATE TABLE statement used must still include a TABLESPACE clause:

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
        ->     c1 INT STORAGE DISK,
        ->     c2 INT STORAGE MEMORY
        -> ) ENGINE NDB;
    ERROR 1005 (HY000): Can't create table 'c.t1' (errno: 140)
    
    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
        ->     c1 INT STORAGE DISK,
        ->     c2 INT STORAGE MEMORY
        -> ) TABLESPACE ts_1 ENGINE NDB;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.06 sec)
    

    For NDB tables, STORAGE DEFAULT is equivalent to STORAGE MEMORY.

    The STORAGE clause has no effect on tables using storage engines other than NDB. The STORAGE keyword is supported only in the build of mysqld that is supplied with NDB Cluster; it is not recognized in any other version of MySQL, where any attempt to use the STORAGE keyword causes a syntax error.

  • GENERATED ALWAYS

    Used to specify a generated column expression. For information about generated columns, see Section 13.1.18.8, “CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns”.

    Stored generated columns can be indexed. InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual generated columns. See Section 13.1.18.9, “Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns”.

Indexes and Foreign Keys

  • CONSTRAINT symbol

    If the CONSTRAINT symbol clause is given, the symbol value, if used, must be unique in the database. A duplicate symbol results in an error. If the clause is not given, or a symbol is not included following the CONSTRAINT keyword, a name for the constraint is created automatically.

  • PRIMARY KEY

    A unique index where all key columns must be defined as NOT NULL. If they are not explicitly declared as NOT NULL, MySQL declares them so implicitly (and silently). A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY. The name of a PRIMARY KEY is always PRIMARY, which thus cannot be used as the name for any other kind of index.

    If you do not have a PRIMARY KEY and an application asks for the PRIMARY KEY in your tables, MySQL returns the first UNIQUE index that has no NULL columns as the PRIMARY KEY.

    In InnoDB tables, keep the PRIMARY KEY short to minimize storage overhead for secondary indexes. Each secondary index entry contains a copy of the primary key columns for the corresponding row. (See Section 14.8.2.1, “Clustered and Secondary Indexes”.)

    In the created table, a PRIMARY KEY is placed first, followed by all UNIQUE indexes, and then the nonunique indexes. This helps the MySQL optimizer to prioritize which index to use and also more quickly to detect duplicated UNIQUE keys.

    A PRIMARY KEY can be a multiple-column index. However, you cannot create a multiple-column index using the PRIMARY KEY key attribute in a column specification. Doing so only marks that single column as primary. You must use a separate PRIMARY KEY(index_col_name, ...) clause.

    If a PRIMARY KEY consists of only one column that has an integer type, you can also refer to the column as _rowid in SELECT statements.

    In MySQL, the name of a PRIMARY KEY is PRIMARY. For other indexes, if you do not assign a name, the index is assigned the same name as the first indexed column, with an optional suffix (_2, _3, ...) to make it unique. You can see index names for a table using SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name. See Section 13.7.5.22, “SHOW INDEX Syntax”.

  • KEY | INDEX

    KEY is normally a synonym for INDEX. The key attribute PRIMARY KEY can also be specified as just KEY when given in a column definition. This was implemented for compatibility with other database systems.

  • UNIQUE

    A UNIQUE index creates a constraint such that all values in the index must be distinct. An error occurs if you try to add a new row with a key value that matches an existing row. For all engines, a UNIQUE index permits multiple NULL values for columns that can contain NULL.

    If a UNIQUE index consists of only one column that has an integer type, you can also refer to the column as _rowid in SELECT statements.

  • FULLTEXT

    A FULLTEXT index is a special type of index used for full-text searches. Only the InnoDB and MyISAM storage engines support FULLTEXT indexes. They can be created only from CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns. Indexing always happens over the entire column; column prefix indexing is not supported and any prefix length is ignored if specified. See Section 12.9, “Full-Text Search Functions”, for details of operation. A WITH PARSER clause can be specified as an index_option value to associate a parser plugin with the index if full-text indexing and searching operations need special handling. This clause is valid only for FULLTEXT indexes. Both InnoDB and MyISAM support full-text parser plugins. See Full-Text Parser Plugins and Section 28.2.4.4, “Writing Full-Text Parser Plugins” for more information.

  • SPATIAL

    You can create SPATIAL indexes on spatial data types. Spatial types are supported only for MyISAM and InnoDB tables, and indexed columns must be declared as NOT NULL. See Section 11.5, “Extensions for Spatial Data”.

  • FOREIGN KEY

    MySQL supports foreign keys, which let you cross-reference related data across tables, and foreign key constraints, which help keep this spread-out data consistent. For definition and option information, see reference_definition, and reference_option.

    Partitioned tables employing the InnoDB storage engine do not support foreign keys. See Section 22.6, “Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning”, for more information.

  • CHECK

    The CHECK clause is parsed but ignored by all storage engines. See Section 1.8.2.3, “Foreign Key Differences”.

  • index_col_name

    • An index_col_name specification can end with ASC or DESC. These keywords are permitted for future extensions for specifying ascending or descending index value storage. Currently, they are parsed but ignored; index values are always stored in ascending order.

    • Prefixes, defined by the length attribute, can be up to 767 bytes long for InnoDB tables or 3072 bytes if the innodb_large_prefix option is enabled. For MyISAM tables, the prefix limit is 1000 bytes.

      Prefix limits are measured in bytes, whereas the prefix length in CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, and CREATE INDEX statements is interpreted as number of characters for nonbinary string types (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT) and number of bytes for binary string types (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB). Take this into account when specifying a prefix length for a nonbinary string column that uses a multibyte character set.

  • index_type

    Some storage engines permit you to specify an index type when creating an index. The syntax for the index_type specifier is USING type_name.

    Example:

    CREATE TABLE lookup
      (id INT, INDEX USING BTREE (id))
      ENGINE = MEMORY;
    

    The preferred position for USING is after the index column list. It can be given before the column list, but support for use of the option in that position is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release.

  • index_option

    index_option values specify additional options for an index.

    • KEY_BLOCK_SIZE

      For MyISAM tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the size in bytes to use for index key blocks. The value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used if necessary. A KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value specified for an individual index definition overrides the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value.

      For information about the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE attribute, see Table Options.

    • WITH PARSER

      The WITH PARSER option can only be used with FULLTEXT indexes. It associates a parser plugin with the index if full-text indexing and searching operations need special handling. Both InnoDB and MyISAM support full-text parser plugins. If you have a MyISAM table with an associated full-text parser plugin, you can convert the table to InnoDB using ALTER TABLE.

    • COMMENT

      In MySQL 5.7, index definitions can include an optional comment of up to 1024 characters.

      You can set the InnoDB MERGE_THRESHOLD value for an individual index using the index_option COMMENT clause. See Section 14.6.13, “Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages”.

    For more information about permissible index_option values, see Section 13.1.14, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”. For more information about indexes, see Section 8.3.1, “How MySQL Uses Indexes”.

  • reference_definition

    For reference_definition syntax details and examples, see Section 13.1.18.6, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”. For information specific to foreign keys in InnoDB, see Section 14.8.1.6, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

    InnoDB and NDB tables support checking of foreign key constraints. The columns of the referenced table must always be explicitly named. Both ON DELETE and ON UPDATE actions on foreign keys are supported. For more detailed information and examples, see Section 13.1.18.6, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”. For information specific to foreign keys in InnoDB, see Section 14.8.1.6, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

    For other storage engines, MySQL Server parses and ignores the FOREIGN KEY and REFERENCES syntax in CREATE TABLE statements. See Section 1.8.2.3, “Foreign Key Differences”.

    Important

    For users familiar with the ANSI/ISO SQL Standard, please note that no storage engine, including InnoDB, recognizes or enforces the MATCH clause used in referential integrity constraint definitions. Use of an explicit MATCH clause will not have the specified effect, and also causes ON DELETE and ON UPDATE clauses to be ignored. For these reasons, specifying MATCH should be avoided.

    The MATCH clause in the SQL standard controls how NULL values in a composite (multiple-column) foreign key are handled when comparing to a primary key. InnoDB essentially implements the semantics defined by MATCH SIMPLE, which permit a foreign key to be all or partially NULL. In that case, the (child table) row containing such a foreign key is permitted to be inserted, and does not match any row in the referenced (parent) table. It is possible to implement other semantics using triggers.

    Additionally, MySQL requires that the referenced columns be indexed for performance. However, InnoDB does not enforce any requirement that the referenced columns be declared UNIQUE or NOT NULL. The handling of foreign key references to nonunique keys or keys that contain NULL values is not well defined for operations such as UPDATE or DELETE CASCADE. You are advised to use foreign keys that reference only keys that are both UNIQUE (or PRIMARY) and NOT NULL.

    MySQL parses but ignores inline REFERENCES specifications (as defined in the SQL standard) where the references are defined as part of the column specification. MySQL accepts REFERENCES clauses only when specified as part of a separate FOREIGN KEY specification.

  • reference_option

    For information about the RESTRICT, CASCADE, SET NULL, NO ACTION, and SET DEFAULT options, see Section 13.1.18.6, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

Table Options

Table options are used to optimize the behavior of the table. In most cases, you do not have to specify any of them. These options apply to all storage engines unless otherwise indicated. Options that do not apply to a given storage engine may be accepted and remembered as part of the table definition. Such options then apply if you later use ALTER TABLE to convert the table to use a different storage engine.

  • ENGINE

    Specifies the storage engine for the table, using one of the names shown in the following table. The engine name can be unquoted or quoted. The quoted name 'DEFAULT' is recognized but ignored.

    Storage EngineDescription
    InnoDBTransaction-safe tables with row locking and foreign keys. The default storage engine for new tables. See Chapter 14, The InnoDB Storage Engine, and in particular Section 14.1, “Introduction to InnoDB” if you have MySQL experience but are new to InnoDB.
    MyISAMThe binary portable storage engine that is primarily used for read-only or read-mostly workloads. See Section 15.2, “The MyISAM Storage Engine”.
    MEMORYThe data for this storage engine is stored only in memory. See Section 15.3, “The MEMORY Storage Engine”.
    CSVTables that store rows in comma-separated values format. See Section 15.4, “The CSV Storage Engine”.
    ARCHIVEThe archiving storage engine. See Section 15.5, “The ARCHIVE Storage Engine”.
    EXAMPLEAn example engine. See Section 15.9, “The EXAMPLE Storage Engine”.
    FEDERATEDStorage engine that accesses remote tables. See Section 15.8, “The FEDERATED Storage Engine”.
    HEAPThis is a synonym for MEMORY.
    MERGEA collection of MyISAM tables used as one table. Also known as MRG_MyISAM. See Section 15.7, “The MERGE Storage Engine”.
    NDBClustered, fault-tolerant, memory-based tables, supporting transactions and foreign keys. Also known as NDBCLUSTER. See Chapter 21, MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6.

    By default, if a storage engine is specified that is not available, the statement fails with an error. You can override this behavior by removing NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION from the server SQL mode (see Section 5.1.8, “Server SQL Modes”) so that MySQL allows substitution of the specified engine with the default storage engine instead. Normally in such cases, this is InnoDB, which is the default value for the default_storage_engine system variable. When NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION is disabled, a warning occurs if the storage engine specification is not honored.

  • AUTO_INCREMENT

    The initial AUTO_INCREMENT value for the table. In MySQL 5.7, this works for MyISAM, MEMORY, InnoDB, and ARCHIVE tables. To set the first auto-increment value for engines that do not support the AUTO_INCREMENT table option, insert a dummy row with a value one less than the desired value after creating the table, and then delete the dummy row.

    For engines that support the AUTO_INCREMENT table option in CREATE TABLE statements, you can also use ALTER TABLE tbl_name AUTO_INCREMENT = N to reset the AUTO_INCREMENT value. The value cannot be set lower than the maximum value currently in the column.

  • AVG_ROW_LENGTH

    An approximation of the average row length for your table. You need to set this only for large tables with variable-size rows.

    When you create a MyISAM table, MySQL uses the product of the MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH options to decide how big the resulting table is. If you don't specify either option, the maximum size for MyISAM data and index files is 256TB by default. (If your operating system does not support files that large, table sizes are constrained by the file size limit.) If you want to keep down the pointer sizes to make the index smaller and faster and you don't really need big files, you can decrease the default pointer size by setting the myisam_data_pointer_size system variable. (See Section 5.1.5, “Server System Variables”.) If you want all your tables to be able to grow above the default limit and are willing to have your tables slightly slower and larger than necessary, you can increase the default pointer size by setting this variable. Setting the value to 7 permits table sizes up to 65,536TB.

  • [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET

    Specifies a default character set for the table. CHARSET is a synonym for CHARACTER SET. If the character set name is DEFAULT, the database character set is used.

  • CHECKSUM

    Set this to 1 if you want MySQL to maintain a live checksum for all rows (that is, a checksum that MySQL updates automatically as the table changes). This makes the table a little slower to update, but also makes it easier to find corrupted tables. The CHECKSUM TABLE statement reports the checksum. (MyISAM only.)

  • [DEFAULT] COLLATE

    Specifies a default collation for the table.

  • COMMENT

    A comment for the table, up to 2048 characters long.

    You can set the InnoDB MERGE_THRESHOLD value for a table using the table_option COMMENT clause. See Section 14.6.13, “Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages”.

    Setting NDB_TABLE options.  In MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.2 and later, the table comment in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement can also be used to specify one to four of the NDB_TABLE options NOLOGGING, READ_BACKUP, PARTITION_BALANCE, or FULLY_REPLICATED as a set of name-value pairs, separated by commas if need be, immediately following the string NDB_TABLE= that begins the quoted comment text. An example statement using this syntax is shown here (emphasized text):

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        c1 INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
        c2 VARCHAR(100),
        c3 VARCHAR(100) )
    ENGINE=NDB
    COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RP_BY_NODE";
    

    Spaces are not permitted within the quoted string. The string is case-insensitive.

    The comment is displayed as part of the ouput of SHOW CREATE TABLE. The text of the comment is also available as the TABLE_COMMENT column of the MySQL Information Schema TABLES table.

    This comment syntax is also supported with ALTER TABLE statements for NDB tables. Keep in mind that a table comment used with ALTER TABLE replaces any existing comment which the table might have had perviously.

    Setting the MERGE_THRESHOLD option in table comments is not supported for NDB tables (it is ignored).

    For complete syntax information and examples, see Section 13.1.18.10, “Setting NDB_TABLE Options”.

  • COMPRESSION

    The compression algorithm used for page level compression for InnoDB tables. Supported values include Zlib, LZ4, and None. The COMPRESSION attribute was introduced with the transparent page compression feature. Page compression is only supported with InnoDB tables that reside in file-per-table tablespaces, and is only available on Linux and Windows platforms that support sparse files and hole punching. For more information, see Section 14.9.2, “InnoDB Page Compression”.

  • CONNECTION

    The connection string for a FEDERATED table.

    Note

    Older versions of MySQL used a COMMENT option for the connection string.

  • DATA DIRECTORY, INDEX DIRECTORY

    For InnoDB, the DATA DIRECTORY='directory' option allows you to create InnoDB file-per-table tablespaces outside the MySQL data directory. Within the directory that you specify, MySQL creates a subdirectory corresponding to the database name, and within that a .ibd file for the table. The innodb_file_per_table configuration option must be enabled to use the DATA DIRECTORY option with InnoDB. The full directory path must be specified. See Section 14.7.5, “Creating File-Per-Table Tablespaces Outside the Data Directory” for more information.

    When creating MyISAM tables, you can use the DATA DIRECTORY='directory' clause, the INDEX DIRECTORY='directory' clause, or both. They specify where to put a MyISAM table's data file and index file, respectively. Unlike InnoDB tables, MySQL does not create subdirectories that correspond to the database name when creating a MyISAM table with a DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY option. Files are created in the directory that is specified.

    As of MySQL 5.7.17, you must have the FILE privilege to use the DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY table option.

    Important

    Table-level DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are ignored for partitioned tables. (Bug #32091)

    These options work only when you are not using the --skip-symbolic-links option. Your operating system must also have a working, thread-safe realpath() call. See Section 8.12.3.2, “Using Symbolic Links for MyISAM Tables on Unix”, for more complete information.

    If a MyISAM table is created with no DATA DIRECTORY option, the .MYD file is created in the database directory. By default, if MyISAM finds an existing .MYD file in this case, it overwrites it. The same applies to .MYI files for tables created with no INDEX DIRECTORY option. To suppress this behavior, start the server with the --keep_files_on_create option, in which case MyISAM will not overwrite existing files and returns an error instead.

    If a MyISAM table is created with a DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY option and an existing .MYD or .MYI file is found, MyISAM always returns an error. It will not overwrite a file in the specified directory.

    Important

    You cannot use path names that contain the MySQL data directory with DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY. This includes partitioned tables and individual table partitions. (See Bug #32167.)

  • DELAY_KEY_WRITE

    Set this to 1 if you want to delay key updates for the table until the table is closed. See the description of the delay_key_write system variable in Section 5.1.5, “Server System Variables”. (MyISAM only.)

  • ENCRYPTION

    Set the ENCRYPTION option to 'Y' to enable page-level data encryption for an InnoDB table created in a file-per-table tablespace. Option values are not case sensitive. The ENCRYPTION option was introduced with the InnoDB tablespace encryption feature; see Section 14.7.10, “InnoDB Tablespace Encryption”. The keyring_file plugin must be loaded to use the ENCRYPTION option.

  • INSERT_METHOD

    If you want to insert data into a MERGE table, you must specify with INSERT_METHOD the table into which the row should be inserted. INSERT_METHOD is an option useful for MERGE tables only. Use a value of FIRST or LAST to have inserts go to the first or last table, or a value of NO to prevent inserts. See Section 15.7, “The MERGE Storage Engine”.

  • KEY_BLOCK_SIZE

    For MyISAM tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the size in bytes to use for index key blocks. The value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used if necessary. A KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value specified for an individual index definition overrides the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value.

    For InnoDB tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the page size (in kilobytes) to use for compressed InnoDB tables. The KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used by InnoDB if necessary. KEY_BLOCK_SIZE can only be less than or equal to the innodb_page_size value. A value of 0 represents the default compressed page size, which is half of the innodb_page_size value. Depending on innodb_page_size, possible KEY_BLOCK_SIZE values include 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16. See Section 14.9.1, “InnoDB Table Compression” for more information.

    Oracle recommends enabling innodb_strict_mode when specifying KEY_BLOCK_SIZE for InnoDB tables. When innodb_strict_mode is enabled, specifying an invalid KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value returns an error. If innodb_strict_mode is disabled, an invalid KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value results in a warning, and the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE option is ignored.

    The Create_options column in response to SHOW TABLE STATUS reports the originally specified KEY_BLOCK_SIZE option, as does SHOW CREATE TABLE.

    InnoDB only supports KEY_BLOCK_SIZE at the table level.

    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is not supported with 32k and 64k innodb_page_size values. InnoDB table compression does not support these pages sizes.

  • MAX_ROWS

    The maximum number of rows you plan to store in the table. This is not a hard limit, but rather a hint to the storage engine that the table must be able to store at least this many rows.

    Important

    The use of MAX_ROWS with NDB tables to control the number of table partitions is deprecated as of NDB Cluster 7.5.4. It remains supported in later versions for backward compatibility, but is subject to removal in a future release. Use PARTITION_BALANCE instead; see Setting NDB_TABLE options.

    The NDB storage engine treats this value as a maximum. If you plan to create very large NDB Cluster tables (containing millions of rows), you should use this option to insure that NDB allocates sufficient number of index slots in the hash table used for storing hashes of the table's primary keys by setting MAX_ROWS = 2 * rows, where rows is the number of rows that you expect to insert into the table.

    The maximum MAX_ROWS value is 4294967295; larger values are truncated to this limit.

  • MIN_ROWS

    The minimum number of rows you plan to store in the table. The MEMORY storage engine uses this option as a hint about memory use.

  • PACK_KEYS

    Takes effect only with MyISAM tables. Set this option to 1 if you want to have smaller indexes. This usually makes updates slower and reads faster. Setting the option to 0 disables all packing of keys. Setting it to DEFAULT tells the storage engine to pack only long CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, or VARBINARY columns.

    If you do not use PACK_KEYS, the default is to pack strings, but not numbers. If you use PACK_KEYS=1, numbers are packed as well.

    When packing binary number keys, MySQL uses prefix compression:

    • Every key needs one extra byte to indicate how many bytes of the previous key are the same for the next key.

    • The pointer to the row is stored in high-byte-first order directly after the key, to improve compression.

    This means that if you have many equal keys on two consecutive rows, all following same keys usually only take two bytes (including the pointer to the row). Compare this to the ordinary case where the following keys takes storage_size_for_key + pointer_size (where the pointer size is usually 4). Conversely, you get a significant benefit from prefix compression only if you have many numbers that are the same. If all keys are totally different, you use one byte more per key, if the key is not a key that can have NULL values. (In this case, the packed key length is stored in the same byte that is used to mark if a key is NULL.)

  • PASSWORD

    This option is unused. If you have a need to scramble your .frm files and make them unusable to any other MySQL server, please contact our sales department.

  • ROW_FORMAT

    Defines the physical format in which the rows are stored.

    When executing a CREATE TABLE statement with strict mode disabled, if you specify a row format that is not supported by the storage engine that is used for the table, the table is created using that storage engine's default row format. The information reported in the Row_format column in response to SHOW TABLE STATUS is the actual row format used. This may differ from the value in the Create_options column because the original CREATE TABLE definition is retained during creation. SHOW CREATE TABLE also reports the row format used in the original CREATE TABLE statement.

    Row format choices differ depending on the storage engine used for the table.

    For InnoDB tables:

    For MyISAM tables, the option value can be FIXED or DYNAMIC for static or variable-length row format. myisampack sets the type to COMPRESSED. See Section 15.2.3, “MyISAM Table Storage Formats”.

    For NDB tables, the default ROW_FORMAT in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.1 and later is DYNAMIC. (Previously, it was FIXED.)

  • STATS_AUTO_RECALC

    Specifies whether to automatically recalculate persistent statistics for an InnoDB table. The value DEFAULT causes the persistent statistics setting for the table to be determined by the innodb_stats_auto_recalc configuration option. The value 1 causes statistics to be recalculated when 10% of the data in the table has changed. The value 0 prevents automatic recalculation for this table; with this setting, issue an ANALYZE TABLE statement to recalculate the statistics after making substantial changes to the table. For more information about the persistent statistics feature, see Section 14.6.12.1, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”.

  • STATS_PERSISTENT

    Specifies whether to enable persistent statistics for an InnoDB table. The value DEFAULT causes the persistent statistics setting for the table to be determined by the innodb_stats_persistent configuration option. The value 1 enables persistent statistics for the table, while the value 0 turns off this feature. After enabling persistent statistics through a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement, issue an ANALYZE TABLE statement to calculate the statistics, after loading representative data into the table. For more information about the persistent statistics feature, see Section 14.6.12.1, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”.

  • STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES

    The number of index pages to sample when estimating cardinality and other statistics for an indexed column, such as those calculated by ANALYZE TABLE. For more information, see Section 14.6.12.1, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”.

  • TABLESPACE

    The TABLESPACE option is used to create a table in an InnoDB general tablespace.

    CREATE TABLE tbl_name ... TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name

    The general tablespace that you specify must exist prior to using the TABLESPACE option. For information about general tablespaces, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”.

    The tablespace_name is a case-sensitive identifier. It may be quoted or unquoted. The forward slash character (/) is not permitted. Names beginning with innodb_ are reserved for special use.

    The TABLESPACE option may be used to assign InnoDB table partitions or subpartitions to a general tablespace, a separate file-per-table tablespace, or the system tablespace. TABLESPACE option support for table partitions and subpartitions was added in MySQL 5.7. All partitions must belong to the same storage engine.

    A tablespace specified at the table level becomes the default tablespace for new partitions and subpartitions. The default tablespace may be overridden by specifying a tablespace at the partition or subpartition level in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement. The following example shows tablespaces defined at the table level and partition level.

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 ( a INT NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (a))
        -> ENGINE=InnoDB TABLESPACE ts1                          
        -> PARTITION BY RANGE (a) PARTITIONS 3 (
        -> PARTITION P1 VALUES LESS THAN (2),
        -> PARTITION P2 VALUES LESS THAN (4) TABLESPACE ts2,
        -> PARTITION P3 VALUES LESS THAN (6) TABLESPACE ts3);
    

    For more information about the TABLESPACE option and partitioning, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”

    To create a table in the system tablespace, specify innodb_system as the tablespace name.

    CREATE TABLE tbl_name ... TABLESPACE [=] innodb_system

    Using the TABLESPACE [=] innodb_system option, you can place a table of any uncompressed row format in the system tablespace regardless of the innodb_file_per_table setting. For example, you can add a table with ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC to the system tablespace using the TABLESPACE [=] innodb_system option.

    To create a table in a file-per-table tablespace, specify innodb_file_per_table as the tablespace name.

    CREATE TABLE tbl_name ... TABLESPACE [=] innodb_file_per_table
    Note

    If innodb_file_per_table is enabled, you need not specify TABLESPACE=innodb_file_per_table to create an InnoDB file-per-table tablespace. InnoDB tables are created in file-per-table tablespaces by default when innodb_file_per_table is enabled.

    The DATA DIRECTORY clause is permitted with CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE=innodb_file_per_table but is otherwise not supported for use in combination with the TABLESPACE option.

    The TABLESPACE option is supported with ALTER TABLE and ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION statements, which can be used to move tables and partitions from one tablespace to another, respectively. For more information, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”.

    The STORAGE table option is employed only with NDB tables. STORAGE determines the type of storage used (disk or memory), and can be one of DISK, MEMORY, or DEFAULT.

    TABLESPACE ... STORAGE DISK assigns a table to an NDB Cluster Disk Data tablespace. The tablespace must already have been created using CREATE TABLESPACE. See Section 21.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”, for more information.

    Important

    A STORAGE clause cannot be used in a CREATE TABLE statement without a TABLESPACE clause.

  • UNION

    Used to access a collection of identical MyISAM tables as one. This works only with MERGE tables. See Section 15.7, “The MERGE Storage Engine”.

    You must have SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges for the tables you map to a MERGE table.

    Note

    Formerly, all tables used had to be in the same database as the MERGE table itself. This restriction no longer applies.

Creating Partitioned Tables

partition_options can be used to control partitioning of the table created with CREATE TABLE.

Not all options shown in the syntax for partition_options at the beginning of this section are available for all partitioning types. Please see the listings for the following individual types for information specific to each type, and see Chapter 22, Partitioning, for more complete information about the workings of and uses for partitioning in MySQL, as well as additional examples of table creation and other statements relating to MySQL partitioning.

Partitions can be modified, merged, added to tables, and dropped from tables. For basic information about the MySQL statements to accomplish these tasks, see Section 13.1.8, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”. For more detailed descriptions and examples, see Section 22.3, “Partition Management”.

  • PARTITION BY

    If used, a partition_options clause begins with PARTITION BY. This clause contains the function that is used to determine the partition; the function returns an integer value ranging from 1 to num, where num is the number of partitions. (The maximum number of user-defined partitions which a table may contain is 1024; the number of subpartitions—discussed later in this section—is included in this maximum.)

    Note

    The expression (expr) used in a PARTITION BY clause cannot refer to any columns not in the table being created; such references are specifically not permitted and cause the statement to fail with an error. (Bug #29444)

  • HASH(expr)

    Hashes one or more columns to create a key for placing and locating rows. expr is an expression using one or more table columns. This can be any valid MySQL expression (including MySQL functions) that yields a single integer value. For example, these are both valid CREATE TABLE statements using PARTITION BY HASH:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (col1 INT, col2 CHAR(5))
        PARTITION BY HASH(col1);
    
    CREATE TABLE t1 (col1 INT, col2 CHAR(5), col3 DATETIME)
        PARTITION BY HASH ( YEAR(col3) );
    

    You may not use either VALUES LESS THAN or VALUES IN clauses with PARTITION BY HASH.

    PARTITION BY HASH uses the remainder of expr divided by the number of partitions (that is, the modulus). For examples and additional information, see Section 22.2.4, “HASH Partitioning”.

    The LINEAR keyword entails a somewhat different algorithm. In this case, the number of the partition in which a row is stored is calculated as the result of one or more logical AND operations. For discussion and examples of linear hashing, see Section 22.2.4.1, “LINEAR HASH Partitioning”.

  • KEY(column_list)

    This is similar to HASH, except that MySQL supplies the hashing function so as to guarantee an even data distribution. The column_list argument is simply a list of 1 or more table columns (maximum: 16). This example shows a simple table partitioned by key, with 4 partitions:

    CREATE TABLE tk (col1 INT, col2 CHAR(5), col3 DATE)
        PARTITION BY KEY(col3)
        PARTITIONS 4;
    

    For tables that are partitioned by key, you can employ linear partitioning by using the LINEAR keyword. This has the same effect as with tables that are partitioned by HASH. That is, the partition number is found using the & operator rather than the modulus (see Section 22.2.4.1, “LINEAR HASH Partitioning”, and Section 22.2.5, “KEY Partitioning”, for details). This example uses linear partitioning by key to distribute data between 5 partitions:

    CREATE TABLE tk (col1 INT, col2 CHAR(5), col3 DATE)
        PARTITION BY LINEAR KEY(col3)
        PARTITIONS 5;
    

    The ALGORITHM={1|2} option is supported with [SUB]PARTITION BY [LINEAR] KEY. ALGORITHM=1 causes the server to use the same key-hashing functions as MySQL 5.1; ALGORITHM=2 means that the server employs the key-hashing functions implemented and used by default for new KEY partitioned tables in MySQL 5.5 and later. (Partitioned tables created with the key-hashing functions employed in MySQL 5.5 and later cannot be used by a MySQL 5.1 server.) Not specifying the option has the same effect as using ALGORITHM=2. This option is intended for use chiefly when upgrading or downgrading [LINEAR] KEY partitioned tables between MySQL 5.1 and later MySQL versions, or for creating tables partitioned by KEY or LINEAR KEY on a MySQL 5.5 or later server which can be used on a MySQL 5.1 server. For more information, see Section 13.1.8.1, “ALTER TABLE Partition Operations”.

    mysqldump in MySQL 5.7 (and later) writes this option encased in versioned comments, like this:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT)
    /*!50100 PARTITION BY KEY */ /*!50611 ALGORITHM = 1 */ /*!50100 ()
          PARTITIONS 3 */
    

    This causes MySQL 5.6.10 and earlier servers to ignore the option, which would otherwise cause a syntax error in those versions. If you plan to load a dump made on a MySQL 5.7 server where you use tables that are partitioned or subpartitioned by KEY into a MySQL 5.6 server previous to version 5.6.11, be sure to consult Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.6, before proceeding. (The information found there also applies if you are loading a dump containing KEY partitioned or subpartitioned tables made from a MySQL 5.7—actually 5.6.11 or later—server into a MySQL 5.5.30 or earlier server.)

    Also in MySQL 5.6.11 and later, ALGORITHM=1 is shown when necessary in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE using versioned comments in the same manner as mysqldump. ALGORITHM=2 is always omitted from SHOW CREATE TABLE output, even if this option was specified when creating the original table.

    You may not use either VALUES LESS THAN or VALUES IN clauses with PARTITION BY KEY.

  • RANGE(expr)

    In this case, expr shows a range of values using a set of VALUES LESS THAN operators. When using range partitioning, you must define at least one partition using VALUES LESS THAN. You cannot use VALUES IN with range partitioning.

    Note

    For tables partitioned by RANGE, VALUES LESS THAN must be used with either an integer literal value or an expression that evaluates to a single integer value. In MySQL 5.7, you can overcome this limitation in a table that is defined using PARTITION BY RANGE COLUMNS, as described later in this section.

    Suppose that you have a table that you wish to partition on a column containing year values, according to the following scheme.

    Partition Number:Years Range:
    01990 and earlier
    11991 to 1994
    21995 to 1998
    31999 to 2002
    42003 to 2005
    52006 and later

    A table implementing such a partitioning scheme can be realized by the CREATE TABLE statement shown here:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        year_col  INT,
        some_data INT
    )
    PARTITION BY RANGE (year_col) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1991),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1995),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (1999),
        PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (2002),
        PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (2006),
        PARTITION p5 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE
    );
    

    PARTITION ... VALUES LESS THAN ... statements work in a consecutive fashion. VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE works to specify leftover values that are greater than the maximum value otherwise specified.

    VALUES LESS THAN clauses work sequentially in a manner similar to that of the case portions of a switch ... case block (as found in many programming languages such as C, Java, and PHP). That is, the clauses must be arranged in such a way that the upper limit specified in each successive VALUES LESS THAN is greater than that of the previous one, with the one referencing MAXVALUE coming last of all in the list.

  • RANGE COLUMNS(column_list)

    This variant on RANGE facilitates partition pruning for queries using range conditions on multiple columns (that is, having conditions such as WHERE a = 1 AND b < 10 or WHERE a = 1 AND b = 10 AND c < 10). It enables you to specify value ranges in multiple columns by using a list of columns in the COLUMNS clause and a set of column values in each PARTITION ... VALUES LESS THAN (value_list) partition definition clause. (In the simplest case, this set consists of a single column.) The maximum number of columns that can be referenced in the column_list and value_list is 16.

    The column_list used in the COLUMNS clause may contain only names of columns; each column in the list must be one of the following MySQL data types: the integer types; the string types; and time or date column types. Columns using BLOB, TEXT, SET, ENUM, BIT, or spatial data types are not permitted; columns that use floating-point number types are also not permitted. You also may not use functions or arithmetic expressions in the COLUMNS clause.

    The VALUES LESS THAN clause used in a partition definition must specify a literal value for each column that appears in the COLUMNS() clause; that is, the list of values used for each VALUES LESS THAN clause must contain the same number of values as there are columns listed in the COLUMNS clause. An attempt to use more or fewer values in a VALUES LESS THAN clause than there are in the COLUMNS clause causes the statement to fail with the error Inconsistency in usage of column lists for partitioning.... You cannot use NULL for any value appearing in VALUES LESS THAN. It is possible to use MAXVALUE more than once for a given column other than the first, as shown in this example:

    CREATE TABLE rc (
        a INT NOT NULL,
        b INT NOT NULL
    )
    PARTITION BY RANGE COLUMNS(a,b) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (10,5),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (20,10),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (50,MAXVALUE),
        PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (65,MAXVALUE),
        PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE,MAXVALUE)
    );
    

    Each value used in a VALUES LESS THAN value list must match the type of the corresponding column exactly; no conversion is made. For example, you cannot use the string '1' for a value that matches a column that uses an integer type (you must use the numeral 1 instead), nor can you use the numeral 1 for a value that matches a column that uses a string type (in such a case, you must use a quoted string: '1').

    For more information, see Section 22.2.1, “RANGE Partitioning”, and Section 22.4, “Partition Pruning”.

  • LIST(expr)

    This is useful when assigning partitions based on a table column with a restricted set of possible values, such as a state or country code. In such a case, all rows pertaining to a certain state or country can be assigned to a single partition, or a partition can be reserved for a certain set of states or countries. It is similar to RANGE, except that only VALUES IN may be used to specify permissible values for each partition.

    VALUES IN is used with a list of values to be matched. For instance, you could create a partitioning scheme such as the following:

    CREATE TABLE client_firms (
        id   INT,
        name VARCHAR(35)
    )
    PARTITION BY LIST (id) (
        PARTITION r0 VALUES IN (1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21),
        PARTITION r1 VALUES IN (2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22),
        PARTITION r2 VALUES IN (3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23),
        PARTITION r3 VALUES IN (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24)
    );
    

    When using list partitioning, you must define at least one partition using VALUES IN. You cannot use VALUES LESS THAN with PARTITION BY LIST.

    Note

    For tables partitioned by LIST, the value list used with VALUES IN must consist of integer values only. In MySQL 5.7, you can overcome this limitation using partitioning by LIST COLUMNS, which is described later in this section.

  • LIST COLUMNS(column_list)

    This variant on LIST facilitates partition pruning for queries using comparison conditions on multiple columns (that is, having conditions such as WHERE a = 5 AND b = 5 or WHERE a = 1 AND b = 10 AND c = 5). It enables you to specify values in multiple columns by using a list of columns in the COLUMNS clause and a set of column values in each PARTITION ... VALUES IN (value_list) partition definition clause.

    The rules governing regarding data types for the column list used in LIST COLUMNS(column_list) and the value list used in VALUES IN(value_list) are the same as those for the column list used in RANGE COLUMNS(column_list) and the value list used in VALUES LESS THAN(value_list), respectively, except that in the VALUES IN clause, MAXVALUE is not permitted, and you may use NULL.

    There is one important difference between the list of values used for VALUES IN with PARTITION BY LIST COLUMNS as opposed to when it is used with PARTITION BY LIST. When used with PARTITION BY LIST COLUMNS, each element in the VALUES IN clause must be a set of column values; the number of values in each set must be the same as the number of columns used in the COLUMNS clause, and the data types of these values must match those of the columns (and occur in the same order). In the simplest case, the set consists of a single column. The maximum number of columns that can be used in the column_list and in the elements making up the value_list is 16.

    The table defined by the following CREATE TABLE statement provides an example of a table using LIST COLUMNS partitioning:

    CREATE TABLE lc (
        a INT NULL,
        b INT NULL
    )
    PARTITION BY LIST COLUMNS(a,b) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES IN( (0,0), (NULL,NULL) ),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES IN( (0,1), (0,2), (0,3), (1,1), (1,2) ),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES IN( (1,0), (2,0), (2,1), (3,0), (3,1) ),
        PARTITION p3 VALUES IN( (1,3), (2,2), (2,3), (3,2), (3,3) )
    );
    
  • PARTITIONS num

    The number of partitions may optionally be specified with a PARTITIONS num clause, where num is the number of partitions. If both this clause and any PARTITION clauses are used, num must be equal to the total number of any partitions that are declared using PARTITION clauses.

    Note

    Whether or not you use a PARTITIONS clause in creating a table that is partitioned by RANGE or LIST, you must still include at least one PARTITION VALUES clause in the table definition (see below).

  • SUBPARTITION BY

    A partition may optionally be divided into a number of subpartitions. This can be indicated by using the optional SUBPARTITION BY clause. Subpartitioning may be done by HASH or KEY. Either of these may be LINEAR. These work in the same way as previously described for the equivalent partitioning types. (It is not possible to subpartition by LIST or RANGE.)

    The number of subpartitions can be indicated using the SUBPARTITIONS keyword followed by an integer value.

  • Rigorous checking of the value used in PARTITIONS or SUBPARTITIONS clauses is applied and this value must adhere to the following rules:

    • The value must be a positive, nonzero integer.

    • No leading zeros are permitted.

    • The value must be an integer literal, and cannot not be an expression. For example, PARTITIONS 0.2E+01 is not permitted, even though 0.2E+01 evaluates to 2. (Bug #15890)

  • partition_definition

    Each partition may be individually defined using a partition_definition clause. The individual parts making up this clause are as follows:

    • PARTITION partition_name

      Specifies a logical name for the partition.

    • VALUES

      For range partitioning, each partition must include a VALUES LESS THAN clause; for list partitioning, you must specify a VALUES IN clause for each partition. This is used to determine which rows are to be stored in this partition. See the discussions of partitioning types in Chapter 22, Partitioning, for syntax examples.

    • [STORAGE] ENGINE

      The partitioning handler accepts a [STORAGE] ENGINE option for both PARTITION and SUBPARTITION. Currently, the only way in which this can be used is to set all partitions or all subpartitions to the same storage engine, and an attempt to set different storage engines for partitions or subpartitions in the same table will give rise to the error ERROR 1469 (HY000): The mix of handlers in the partitions is not permitted in this version of MySQL. We expect to lift this restriction on partitioning in a future MySQL release.

    • COMMENT

      An optional COMMENT clause may be used to specify a string that describes the partition. Example:

      COMMENT = 'Data for the years previous to 1999'
      

      The maximum length for a partition comment is 1024 characters.

    • DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY

      DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY may be used to indicate the directory where, respectively, the data and indexes for this partition are to be stored. Both the data_dir and the index_dir must be absolute system path names.

      As of MySQL 5.7.17, you must have the FILE privilege to use the DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY partition option.

      Example:

      CREATE TABLE th (id INT, name VARCHAR(30), adate DATE)
      PARTITION BY LIST(YEAR(adate))
      (
        PARTITION p1999 VALUES IN (1995, 1999, 2003)
          DATA DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/95/data'
          INDEX DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/95/idx',
        PARTITION p2000 VALUES IN (1996, 2000, 2004)
          DATA DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/96/data'
          INDEX DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/96/idx',
        PARTITION p2001 VALUES IN (1997, 2001, 2005)
          DATA DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/97/data'
          INDEX DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/97/idx',
        PARTITION p2002 VALUES IN (1998, 2002, 2006)
          DATA DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/98/data'
          INDEX DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/98/idx'
      );
      

      DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY behave in the same way as in the CREATE TABLE statement's table_option clause as used for MyISAM tables.

      One data directory and one index directory may be specified per partition. If left unspecified, the data and indexes are stored by default in the table's database directory.

      On Windows, the DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are not supported for individual partitions or subpartitions of MyISAM tables, and the INDEX DIRECTORY option is not supported for individual partitions or subpartitions of InnoDB tables. These options are ignored on Windows, except that a warning is generated. (Bug #30459)

      Note

      The DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are ignored for creating partitioned tables if NO_DIR_IN_CREATE is in effect. (Bug #24633)

    • MAX_ROWS and MIN_ROWS

      May be used to specify, respectively, the maximum and minimum number of rows to be stored in the partition. The values for max_number_of_rows and min_number_of_rows must be positive integers. As with the table-level options with the same names, these act only as suggestions to the server and are not hard limits.

    • TABLESPACE

      May be used to assign InnoDB table partitions or subpartitions to a general tablespace, a separate file-per-table tablespace, or the system tablespace. TABLESPACE option support for table partitions and subpartitions was added in MySQL 5.7 see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”. It is also supported by NDB Cluster. All partitions must belong to the same storage engine.

  • subpartition_definition

    The partition definition may optionally contain one or more subpartition_definition clauses. Each of these consists at a minimum of the SUBPARTITION name, where name is an identifier for the subpartition. Except for the replacement of the PARTITION keyword with SUBPARTITION, the syntax for a subpartition definition is identical to that for a partition definition.

    Subpartitioning must be done by HASH or KEY, and can be done only on RANGE or LIST partitions. See Section 22.2.6, “Subpartitioning”.

Partitioning by Generated Columns

Partitioning by generated columns is permitted. For example:

CREATE TABLE t1 (
  s1 INT,
  s2 INT AS (EXP(s1)) STORED
)
PARTITION BY LIST (s2) (
  PARTITION p1 VALUES IN (1)
);

Partitioning sees a generated column as a regular column, which enables workarounds for limitations on functions that are not permitted for partitioning (see Section 22.6.3, “Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions”). The preceding example demonstrates this technique: EXP() cannot be used directly in the PARTITION BY clause, but a generated column defined using EXP() is permitted.

13.1.18.1 CREATE TABLE Statement Retention

The original CREATE TABLE statement, including all specifications and table options are stored by MySQL when the table is created. The information is retained so that if you change storage engines, collations or other settings using an ALTER TABLE statement, the original table options specified are retained. This enables you to change between InnoDB and MyISAM table types even though the row formats supported by the two engines are different.

Because the text of the original statement is retained, but due to the way that certain values and options may be silently reconfigured (such as the ROW_FORMAT), the active table definition (accessible through DESCRIBE or with SHOW TABLE STATUS) and the table creation string (accessible through SHOW CREATE TABLE) will report different values.

13.1.18.2 Files Created by CREATE TABLE

MySQL represents each table by an .frm table format (definition) file in the database directory. The storage engine for the table might create other files as well.

For an InnoDB table created in a file-per-table tablespace or general tablespace, table data and associated indexes are stored in an ibd file in the database directory. When an InnoDB table is created in the system tablespace, table data and indexes are stored in the ibdata* files that represent the system tablespace. The innodb_file_per_table option controls whether tables are created in file-per-table tablespaces or the system tablespace, by default. The TABLESPACE option can be used to place a table in a file-per-table tablespace, general tablespace, or the system tablespace, regardless of the innodb_file_per_table setting.

For MyISAM tables, the storage engine creates data and index files. Thus, for each MyISAM table tbl_name, there are three disk files.

FilePurpose
tbl_name.frmTable format (definition) file
tbl_name.MYDData file
tbl_name.MYIIndex file

Chapter 15, Alternative Storage Engines, describes what files each storage engine creates to represent tables. If a table name contains special characters, the names for the table files contain encoded versions of those characters as described in Section 9.2.3, “Mapping of Identifiers to File Names”.

13.1.18.3 CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE Syntax

You can use the TEMPORARY keyword when creating a table. A TEMPORARY table is visible only within the current session, and is dropped automatically when the session is closed. This means that two different sessions can use the same temporary table name without conflicting with each other or with an existing non-TEMPORARY table of the same name. (The existing table is hidden until the temporary table is dropped.)

CREATE TABLE causes an implicit commit, except when used with the TEMPORARY keyword. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

TEMPORARY tables have a very loose relationship with databases (schemas). Dropping a database does not automatically drop any TEMPORARY tables created within that database. Also, you can create a TEMPORARY table in a nonexistent database if you qualify the table name with the database name in the CREATE TABLE statement. In this case, all subsequent references to the table must be qualified with the database name.

To create a temporary table, you must have the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES privilege. After a session has created a temporary table, the server performs no further privilege checks on the table. The creating session can perform any operation on the table, such as DROP TABLE, INSERT, UPDATE, or SELECT.

One implication of this behavior is that a session can manipulate its temporary tables even if the current user has no privilege to create them. Suppose that the current user does not have the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES privilege but is able to execute a definer-context stored procedure that executes with the privileges of a user who does have CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES and that creates a temporary table. While the procedure executes, the session uses the privileges of the defining user. After the procedure returns, the effective privileges revert to those of the current user, which can still see the temporary table and perform any operation on it.

13.1.18.4 CREATE TABLE ... LIKE Syntax

Use CREATE TABLE ... LIKE to create an empty table based on the definition of another table, including any column attributes and indexes defined in the original table:

CREATE TABLE new_tbl LIKE orig_tbl;

The copy is created using the same version of the table storage format as the original table. The SELECT privilege is required on the original table.

LIKE works only for base tables, not for views.

Important

You cannot execute CREATE TABLE or CREATE TABLE ... LIKE while a LOCK TABLES statement is in effect.

CREATE TABLE ... LIKE makes the same checks as CREATE TABLE and does not just copy the .frm file. This means that if the current SQL mode is different from the mode in effect when the original table was created, the table definition might be considered invalid for the new mode and the statement will fail.

For CREATE TABLE ... LIKE, the destination table preserves generated column information from the original table.

CREATE TABLE ... LIKE does not preserve any DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY table options that were specified for the original table, or any foreign key definitions.

If the original table is a TEMPORARY table, CREATE TABLE ... LIKE does not preserve TEMPORARY. To create a TEMPORARY destination table, use CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE ... LIKE.

13.1.18.5 CREATE TABLE ... SELECT Syntax

You can create one table from another by adding a SELECT statement at the end of the CREATE TABLE statement:

CREATE TABLE new_tbl [AS] SELECT * FROM orig_tbl;

MySQL creates new columns for all elements in the SELECT. For example:

mysql> CREATE TABLE test (a INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    ->        PRIMARY KEY (a), KEY(b))
    ->        ENGINE=MyISAM SELECT b,c FROM test2;

This creates a MyISAM table with three columns, a, b, and c. The ENGINE option is part of the CREATE TABLE statement, and should not be used following the SELECT; this would result in a syntax error. The same is true for other CREATE TABLE options such as CHARSET.

Notice that the columns from the SELECT statement are appended to the right side of the table, not overlapped onto it. Take the following example:

mysql> SELECT * FROM foo;
+---+
| n |
+---+
| 1 |
+---+

mysql> CREATE TABLE bar (m INT) SELECT n FROM foo;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)
Records: 1  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT * FROM bar;
+------+---+
| m    | n |
+------+---+
| NULL | 1 |
+------+---+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

For each row in table foo, a row is inserted in bar with the values from foo and default values for the new columns.

In a table resulting from CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, columns named only in the CREATE TABLE part come first. Columns named in both parts or only in the SELECT part come after that. The data type of SELECT columns can be overridden by also specifying the column in the CREATE TABLE part.

If any errors occur while copying the data to the table, it is automatically dropped and not created.

You can precede the SELECT by IGNORE or REPLACE to indicate how to handle rows that duplicate unique key values. With IGNORE, rows that duplicate an existing row on a unique key value are discarded. With REPLACE, new rows replace rows that have the same unique key value. If neither IGNORE nor REPLACE is specified, duplicate unique key values result in an error. For more information, see Comparison of the IGNORE Keyword and Strict SQL Mode.

Because the ordering of the rows in the underlying SELECT statements cannot always be determined, CREATE TABLE ... IGNORE SELECT and CREATE TABLE ... REPLACE SELECT statements are flagged as unsafe for statement-based replication. Such statements produce a warning in the error log when using statement-based mode and are written to the binary log using the row-based format when using MIXED mode. See also Section 16.2.1.1, “Advantages and Disadvantages of Statement-Based and Row-Based Replication”.

CREATE TABLE ... SELECT does not automatically create any indexes for you. This is done intentionally to make the statement as flexible as possible. If you want to have indexes in the created table, you should specify these before the SELECT statement:

mysql> CREATE TABLE bar (UNIQUE (n)) SELECT n FROM foo;

For CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, the destination table does not preserve information about whether columns in the selected-from table are generated columns. The SELECT part of the statement cannot assign values to generated columns in the destination table.

Some conversion of data types might occur. For example, the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute is not preserved, and VARCHAR columns can become CHAR columns. Retrained attributes are NULL (or NOT NULL) and, for those columns that have them, CHARACTER SET, COLLATION, COMMENT, and the DEFAULT clause.

When creating a table with CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, make sure to alias any function calls or expressions in the query. If you do not, the CREATE statement might fail or result in undesirable column names.

CREATE TABLE artists_and_works
  SELECT artist.name, COUNT(work.artist_id) AS number_of_works
  FROM artist LEFT JOIN work ON artist.id = work.artist_id
  GROUP BY artist.id;

You can also explicitly specify the data type for a column in the created table:

CREATE TABLE foo (a TINYINT NOT NULL) SELECT b+1 AS a FROM bar;

For CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, if IF NOT EXISTS is given and the target table exists, nothing is inserted into the destination table, and the statement is not logged.

To ensure that the binary log can be used to re-create the original tables, MySQL does not permit concurrent inserts during CREATE TABLE ... SELECT.

You cannot use FOR UPDATE as part of the SELECT in a statement such as CREATE TABLE new_table SELECT ... FROM old_table .... If you attempt to do so, the statement fails.

13.1.18.6 Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints

MySQL supports foreign keys, which let you cross-reference related data across tables, and foreign key constraints, which help keep this spread-out data consistent. The essential syntax for a foreign key constraint definition in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement looks like this:

[CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY
    [index_name] (index_col_name, ...)
    REFERENCES tbl_name (index_col_name,...)
    [ON DELETE reference_option]
    [ON UPDATE reference_option]

reference_option:
    RESTRICT | CASCADE | SET NULL | NO ACTION | SET DEFAULT

index_name represents a foreign key ID. The index_name value is ignored if there is already an explicitly defined index on the child table that can support the foreign key. Otherwise, MySQL implicitly creates a foreign key index that is named according to the following rules:

  • If defined, the CONSTRAINT symbol value is used. Otherwise, the FOREIGN KEY index_name value is used.

  • If neither a CONSTRAINT symbol or FOREIGN KEY index_name is defined, the foreign key index name is generated using the name of the referencing foreign key column.

Foreign keys definitions are subject to the following conditions:

  • Foreign key relationships involve a parent table that holds the central data values, and a child table with identical values pointing back to its parent. The FOREIGN KEY clause is specified in the child table. The parent and child tables must use the same storage engine. They must not be TEMPORARY tables.

    In MySQL 5.7, creation of a foreign key constraint requires the REFERENCES privilege for the parent table.

  • Corresponding columns in the foreign key and the referenced key must have similar data types. The size and sign of integer types must be the same. The length of string types need not be the same. For nonbinary (character) string columns, the character set and collation must be the same.

  • When foreign_key_checks is enabled, which is the default setting, character set conversion is not permitted on tables that include a character string column used in a foreign key constraint. The workaround is described in Section 13.1.8, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”.

  • MySQL requires indexes on foreign keys and referenced keys so that foreign key checks can be fast and not require a table scan. In the referencing table, there must be an index where the foreign key columns are listed as the first columns in the same order. Such an index is created on the referencing table automatically if it does not exist. This index might be silently dropped later, if you create another index that can be used to enforce the foreign key constraint. index_name, if given, is used as described previously.

  • InnoDB permits a foreign key to reference any column or group of columns. However, in the referenced table, there must be an index where the referenced columns are listed as the first columns in the same order.

    NDB requires an explicit unique key (or primary key) on any column referenced as a foreign key.

  • Index prefixes on foreign key columns are not supported. One consequence of this is that BLOB and TEXT columns cannot be included in a foreign key because indexes on those columns must always include a prefix length.

  • If the CONSTRAINT symbol clause is given, the symbol value, if used, must be unique in the database. A duplicate symbol will result in an error similar to: ERROR 1022 (2300): Can't write; duplicate key in table '#sql- 464_1'. If the clause is not given, or a symbol is not included following the CONSTRAINT keyword, a name for the constraint is created automatically.

  • InnoDB does not currently support foreign keys for tables with user-defined partitioning. This includes both parent and child tables.

    This restriction does not apply for NDB tables that are partitioned by KEY or LINEAR KEY (the only user partitioning types supported by the NDB storage engine); these may have foreign key references or be the targets of such references.

  • For NDB tables, ON UPDATE CASCADE is not supported where the reference is to the parent table's primary key.

Referential Actions

This section describes how foreign keys help guarantee referential integrity.

For storage engines supporting foreign keys, MySQL rejects any INSERT or UPDATE operation that attempts to create a foreign key value in a child table if there is no a matching candidate key value in the parent table.

When an UPDATE or DELETE operation affects a key value in the parent table that has matching rows in the child table, the result depends on the referential action specified using ON UPDATE and ON DELETE subclauses of the FOREIGN KEY clause. MySQL supports five options regarding the action to be taken, listed here:

  • CASCADE: Delete or update the row from the parent table, and automatically delete or update the matching rows in the child table. Both ON DELETE CASCADE and ON UPDATE CASCADE are supported. Between two tables, do not define several ON UPDATE CASCADE clauses that act on the same column in the parent table or in the child table.

    Note

    Cascaded foreign key actions do not activate triggers.

  • SET NULL: Delete or update the row from the parent table, and set the foreign key column or columns in the child table to NULL. Both ON DELETE SET NULL and ON UPDATE SET NULL clauses are supported.

    If you specify a SET NULL action, make sure that you have not declared the columns in the child table as NOT NULL.

  • RESTRICT: Rejects the delete or update operation for the parent table. Specifying RESTRICT (or NO ACTION) is the same as omitting the ON DELETE or ON UPDATE clause.

  • NO ACTION: A keyword from standard SQL. In MySQL, equivalent to RESTRICT. The MySQL Server rejects the delete or update operation for the parent table if there is a related foreign key value in the referenced table. Some database systems have deferred checks, and NO ACTION is a deferred check. In MySQL, foreign key constraints are checked immediately, so NO ACTION is the same as RESTRICT.

  • SET DEFAULT: This action is recognized by the MySQL parser, but both InnoDB and NDB reject table definitions containing ON DELETE SET DEFAULT or ON UPDATE SET DEFAULT clauses.

For an ON DELETE or ON UPDATE that is not specified, the default action is always RESTRICT.

MySQL supports foreign key references between one column and another within a table. (A column cannot have a foreign key reference to itself.) In these cases, child table records really refers to dependent records within the same table.

A foreign key constraint on a stored generated column cannot use ON UPDATE CASCADE, ON DELETE SET NULL, ON UPDATE SET NULL, ON DELETE SET DEFAULT, or ON UPDATE SET DEFAULT.

A foreign key constraint cannot reference a virtual generated column.

For InnoDB restrictions related to foreign keys and generated columns, see Section 14.8.1.6, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

Examples of Foreign Key Clauses

Here is a simple example that relates parent and child tables through a single-column foreign key:

CREATE TABLE parent (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
) ENGINE=INNODB;

CREATE TABLE child (
    id INT,
    parent_id INT,
    INDEX par_ind (parent_id),
    FOREIGN KEY (parent_id)
        REFERENCES parent(id)
        ON DELETE CASCADE
) ENGINE=INNODB;

A more complex example in which a product_order table has foreign keys for two other tables. One foreign key references a two-column index in the product table. The other references a single-column index in the customer table:

CREATE TABLE product (
    category INT NOT NULL, id INT NOT NULL,
    price DECIMAL,
    PRIMARY KEY(category, id)
)   ENGINE=INNODB;

CREATE TABLE customer (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
)   ENGINE=INNODB;

CREATE TABLE product_order (
    no INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    product_category INT NOT NULL,
    product_id INT NOT NULL,
    customer_id INT NOT NULL,

    PRIMARY KEY(no),
    INDEX (product_category, product_id),
    INDEX (customer_id),

    FOREIGN KEY (product_category, product_id)
      REFERENCES product(category, id)
      ON UPDATE CASCADE ON DELETE RESTRICT,

    FOREIGN KEY (customer_id)
      REFERENCES customer(id)
)   ENGINE=INNODB;
Adding foreign keys

You can add a new foreign key constraint to an existing table by using ALTER TABLE. The syntax relating to foreign keys for this statement is shown here:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name
    ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY
    [index_name] (index_col_name, ...)
    REFERENCES tbl_name (index_col_name,...)
    [ON DELETE reference_option]
    [ON UPDATE reference_option]

The foreign key can be self referential (referring to the same table). When you add a foreign key constraint to a table using ALTER TABLE, remember to create the required indexes first.

Dropping Foreign Keys

You can also use ALTER TABLE to drop foreign keys, using the syntax shown here:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name DROP FOREIGN KEY fk_symbol;

If the FOREIGN KEY clause included a CONSTRAINT name when you created the foreign key, you can refer to that name to drop the foreign key. Otherwise, the fk_symbol value is generated internally when the foreign key is created. To find out the symbol value when you want to drop a foreign key, use a SHOW CREATE TABLE statement, as shown here:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE ibtest11c\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: ibtest11c
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `ibtest11c` (
  `A` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
  `D` int(11) NOT NULL default '0',
  `B` varchar(200) NOT NULL default '',
  `C` varchar(175) default NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY  (`A`,`D`,`B`),
  KEY `B` (`B`,`C`),
  KEY `C` (`C`),
  CONSTRAINT `0_38775` FOREIGN KEY (`A`, `D`)
REFERENCES `ibtest11a` (`A`, `D`)
ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE,
  CONSTRAINT `0_38776` FOREIGN KEY (`B`, `C`)
REFERENCES `ibtest11a` (`B`, `C`)
ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE
) ENGINE=INNODB CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE ibtest11c DROP FOREIGN KEY `0_38775`;

Prior to MySQL 5.6.6, adding and dropping a foreign key in the same ALTER TABLE statement may be problematic in some cases and is therefore unsupported. Separate statements should be used for each operation. As of MySQL 5.6.6, adding and dropping a foreign key in the same ALTER TABLE statement is supported for ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE but remains unsupported for ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=COPY.

In MySQL 5.7, the server prohibits changes to foreign key columns with the potential to cause loss of referential integrity. A workaround is to use ALTER TABLE ... DROP FOREIGN KEY before changing the column definition and ALTER TABLE ... ADD FOREIGN KEY afterward.

Foreign Keys and Other MySQL Statements

Table and column identifiers in a FOREIGN KEY ... REFERENCES ... clause can be quoted within backticks (`). Alternatively, double quotation marks (") can be used if the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled. The setting of the lower_case_table_names system variable is also taken into account.

You can view a child table's foreign key definitions as part of the output of the SHOW CREATE TABLE statement:

SHOW CREATE TABLE tbl_name;

You can also obtain information about foreign keys by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE table.

You can find information about foreign keys used by InnoDB tables in the INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN and INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN_COLS tables, also in the INFORMATION_SCHEMA database.

mysqldump produces correct definitions of tables in the dump file, including the foreign keys for child tables.

To make it easier to reload dump files for tables that have foreign key relationships, mysqldump automatically includes a statement in the dump output to set foreign_key_checks to 0. This avoids problems with tables having to be reloaded in a particular order when the dump is reloaded. It is also possible to set this variable manually:

mysql> SET foreign_key_checks = 0;
mysql> SOURCE dump_file_name;
mysql> SET foreign_key_checks = 1;

This enables you to import the tables in any order if the dump file contains tables that are not correctly ordered for foreign keys. It also speeds up the import operation. Setting foreign_key_checks to 0 can also be useful for ignoring foreign key constraints during LOAD DATA and ALTER TABLE operations. However, even if foreign_key_checks = 0, MySQL does not permit the creation of a foreign key constraint where a column references a nonmatching column type. Also, if a table has foreign key constraints, ALTER TABLE cannot be used to alter the table to use another storage engine. To change the storage engine, you must drop any foreign key constraints first.

You cannot issue DROP TABLE for a table that is referenced by a FOREIGN KEY constraint, unless you do SET foreign_key_checks = 0. When you drop a table, any constraints that were defined in the statement used to create that table are also dropped.

If you re-create a table that was dropped, it must have a definition that conforms to the foreign key constraints referencing it. It must have the correct column names and types, and it must have indexes on the referenced keys, as stated earlier. If these are not satisfied, MySQL returns Error 1005 and refers to Error 150 in the error message, which means that a foreign key constraint was not correctly formed. Similarly, if an ALTER TABLE fails due to Error 150, this means that a foreign key definition would be incorrectly formed for the altered table.

For InnoDB tables, you can obtain a detailed explanation of the most recent InnoDB foreign key error in the MySQL Server, by checking the output of SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS.

Important

For users familiar with the ANSI/ISO SQL Standard, please note that no storage engine, including InnoDB, recognizes or enforces the MATCH clause used in referential-integrity constraint definitions. Use of an explicit MATCH clause will not have the specified effect, and also causes ON DELETE and ON UPDATE clauses to be ignored. For these reasons, specifying MATCH should be avoided.

The MATCH clause in the SQL standard controls how NULL values in a composite (multiple-column) foreign key are handled when comparing to a primary key. MySQL essentially implements the semantics defined by MATCH SIMPLE, which permit a foreign key to be all or partially NULL. In that case, the (child table) row containing such a foreign key is permitted to be inserted, and does not match any row in the referenced (parent) table. It is possible to implement other semantics using triggers.

Additionally, MySQL requires that the referenced columns be indexed for performance reasons. However, the system does not enforce a requirement that the referenced columns be UNIQUE or be declared NOT NULL. The handling of foreign key references to nonunique keys or keys that contain NULL values is not well defined for operations such as UPDATE or DELETE CASCADE. You are advised to use foreign keys that reference only UNIQUE (including PRIMARY) and NOT NULL keys.

Furthermore, MySQL parses but ignores inline REFERENCES specifications (as defined in the SQL standard) where the references are defined as part of the column specification. MySQL accepts REFERENCES clauses only when specified as part of a separate FOREIGN KEY specification. For storage engines that do not support foreign keys (such as MyISAM), MySQL Server parses and ignores foreign key specifications.

13.1.18.7 Silent Column Specification Changes

In some cases, MySQL silently changes column specifications from those given in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement. These might be changes to a data type, to attributes associated with a data type, or to an index specification.

All changes are subject to the internal row-size limit of 65,535 bytes, which may cause some attempts at data type changes to fail. See Section C.10.4, “Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size”.

  • Columns that are part of a PRIMARY KEY are made NOT NULL even if not declared that way.

  • Trailing spaces are automatically deleted from ENUM and SET member values when the table is created.

  • MySQL maps certain data types used by other SQL database vendors to MySQL types. See Section 11.10, “Using Data Types from Other Database Engines”.

  • If you include a USING clause to specify an index type that is not permitted for a given storage engine, but there is another index type available that the engine can use without affecting query results, the engine uses the available type.

  • If strict SQL mode is not enabled, a VARCHAR column with a length specification greater than 65535 is converted to TEXT, and a VARBINARY column with a length specification greater than 65535 is converted to BLOB. Otherwise, an error occurs in either of these cases.

  • Specifying the CHARACTER SET binary attribute for a character data type causes the column to be created as the corresponding binary data type: CHAR becomes BINARY, VARCHAR becomes VARBINARY, and TEXT becomes BLOB. For the ENUM and SET data types, this does not occur; they are created as declared. Suppose that you specify a table using this definition:

    CREATE TABLE t
    (
      c1 VARCHAR(10) CHARACTER SET binary,
      c2 TEXT CHARACTER SET binary,
      c3 ENUM('a','b','c') CHARACTER SET binary
    );
    

    The resulting table has this definition:

    CREATE TABLE t
    (
      c1 VARBINARY(10),
      c2 BLOB,
      c3 ENUM('a','b','c') CHARACTER SET binary
    );
    

To see whether MySQL used a data type other than the one you specified, issue a DESCRIBE or SHOW CREATE TABLE statement after creating or altering the table.

Certain other data type changes can occur if you compress a table using myisampack. See Section 15.2.3.3, “Compressed Table Characteristics”.

13.1.18.8 CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns

As of MySQL 5.7.6, CREATE TABLE supports the specification of generated columns. Values of a generated column are computed from an expression included in the column definition.

Generated columns are supported by the NDB storage engine beginning with MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.3.

The following simple example shows a table that stores the lengths of the sides of right triangles in the sidea and sideb columns, and computes the length of the hypotenuse in sidec (the square root of the sums of the squares of the other sides):

CREATE TABLE triangle (
  sidea DOUBLE,
  sideb DOUBLE,
  sidec DOUBLE AS (SQRT(sidea * sidea + sideb * sideb))
);
INSERT INTO triangle (sidea, sideb) VALUES(1,1),(3,4),(6,8);

Selecting from the table yields this result:

mysql> SELECT * FROM triangle;
+-------+-------+--------------------+
| sidea | sideb | sidec              |
+-------+-------+--------------------+
|     1 |     1 | 1.4142135623730951 |
|     3 |     4 |                  5 |
|     6 |     8 |                 10 |
+-------+-------+--------------------+

Any application that uses the triangle table has access to the hypotenuse values without having to specify the expression that calculates them.

Generated column definitions have this syntax:

col_name data_type [GENERATED ALWAYS] AS (expression)
  [VIRTUAL | STORED] [UNIQUE [KEY]] [COMMENT comment]
  [[NOT] NULL] [[PRIMARY] KEY]

AS (expression) indicates that the column is generated and defines the expression used to compute column values. AS may be preceded by GENERATED ALWAYS to make the generated nature of the column more explicit. Constructs that are permitted or prohibited in the expression are discussed later.

The VIRTUAL or STORED keyword indicates how column values are stored, which has implications for column use:

  • VIRTUAL: Column values are not stored, but are evaluated when rows are read, immediately after any BEFORE triggers. A virtual column takes no storage.

    InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual columns. See Section 13.1.18.9, “Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns”.

  • STORED: Column values are evaluated and stored when rows are inserted or updated. A stored column does require storage space and can be indexed.

The default is VIRTUAL if neither keyword is specified.

It is permitted to mix VIRTUAL and STORED columns within a table.

Other attributes may be given to indicate whether the column is indexed or can be NULL, or provide a comment. (Note that the order of these attributes differs from their order in nongenerated column definitions.)

Generated column expressions must adhere to the following rules. An error occurs if an expression contains disallowed constructs.

  • Literals, deterministic built-in functions, and operators are permitted. A function is deterministic if, given the same data in tables, multiple invocations produce the same result, independently of the connected user. Examples of functions that fail this definition: CONNECTION_ID(), CURRENT_USER(), NOW().

  • Subqueries, parameters, variables, stored functions, and user-defined functions are not permitted.

  • A generated column definition can refer to other generated columns, but only those occurring earlier in the table definition. A generated column definition can refer to any base (nongenerated) column in the table whether its definition occurs earlier or later.

  • The AUTO_INCREMENT attribute cannot be used in a generated column definition.

  • An AUTO_INCREMENT column cannot be used as a base column in a generated column definition.

  • As of MySQL 5.7.10, if expression evaluation causes truncation or provides incorrect input to a function, the CREATE TABLE statement terminates with an error and the DDL operation is rejected.

If the expression evaluates to a data type that differs from the declared column type, coercion to the declared type occurs according to the usual MySQL type-conversion rules. See Section 12.2, “Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation”.

Note

If any component of the expression depends on the SQL mode, different results may occur for different uses of the table unless the SQL mode is the same during all uses.

For CREATE TABLE ... LIKE, the destination table preserves generated column information from the original table.

For CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, the destination table does not preserve information about whether columns in the selected-from table are generated columns. The SELECT part of the statement cannot assign values to generated columns in the destination table.

Partitioning by generated columns is permitted. See Creating Partitioned Tables.

A foreign key constraint on a stored generated column cannot use ON UPDATE CASCADE, ON DELETE SET NULL, ON UPDATE SET NULL, ON DELETE SET DEFAULT, or ON UPDATE SET DEFAULT.

A foreign key constraint cannot reference a virtual generated column.

For InnoDB restrictions related to foreign keys and generated columns, see Section 14.8.1.6, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

Triggers cannot use NEW.col_name or use OLD.col_name to refer to generated columns.

For INSERT, REPLACE, and UPDATE, if a generated column is inserted into, replaced, or updated explicitly, the only permitted value is DEFAULT.

A generated column in a view is considered updatable because it is possible to assign to it. However, if such a column is updated explicitly, the only permitted value is DEFAULT.

Generated columns have several use cases, such as these:

  • Virtual generated columns can be used as a way to simplify and unify queries. A complicated condition can be defined as a generated column and referred to from multiple queries on the table to ensure that all of them use exactly the same condition.

  • Stored generated columns can be used as a materialized cache for complicated conditions that are costly to calculate on the fly.

  • Generated columns can simulate functional indexes: Use a stored column to define a functional expression and index it. This can be useful for working with columns of types that cannot be indexed directly, such as JSON columns; see Indexing a Generated Column to Provide a JSON Column Index, for a detailed example.

    The disadvantage of such an approach is that values are stored twice; once as the value of the generated column and once in the index.

  • If a generated column is indexed, the optimizer recognizes query expressions that match the column definition and uses indexes from the column as appropriate during query execution, even if a query does not refer to the column directly by name. For details, see Section 8.3.10, “Optimizer Use of Generated Column Indexes”.

Example:

Suppose that a table t1 contains first_name and last_name columns and that applications frequently construct the full name using an expression like this:

SELECT CONCAT(first_name,' ',last_name) AS full_name FROM t1;

One way to avoid writing out the expression is to create a view v1 on t1, which simplifies applications by enabling them to select full_name directly without using an expression:

CREATE VIEW v1 AS
SELECT *, CONCAT(first_name,' ',last_name) AS full_name FROM t1;

SELECT full_name FROM v1;

A generated column also enables applications to select full_name directly without the need to define a view:

CREATE TABLE t1 (
  first_name VARCHAR(10),
  last_name VARCHAR(10),
  full_name VARCHAR(255) AS (CONCAT(first_name,' ',last_name))
);

SELECT full_name FROM t1;

13.1.18.9 Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns

InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual generated columns. Other index types are not supported. A secondary index defined on a virtual column is sometimes referred to as a virtual index.

A secondary index may be created on one or more virtual columns or on a combination of virtual columns and regular columns or stored generated columns. Secondary indexes that include virtual columns may be defined as UNIQUE.

When a secondary index is created on a virtual generated column, generated column values are materialized in the records of the index. If the index is a covering index (one that includes all the columns retrieved by a query), generated column values are retrieved from materialized values in the index structure instead of computed on the fly.

There are additional write costs to consider when using a secondary index on a virtual column due to computation performed when materializing virtual column values in secondary index records during INSERT and UPDATE operations. Even with additional write costs, secondary indexes on virtual columns may be preferable to generated stored columns, which are materialized in the clustered index, resulting in larger tables that require more disk space and memory. If a secondary index is not defined on a virtual column, there are additional costs for reads, as virtual column values must be computed each time the column's row is examined.

Values of an indexed virtual column are MVCC-logged to avoid unnecessary recomputation of generated column values during rollback or during a purge operation. The data length of logged values is limited by the index key limit of 767 bytes for COMPACT and REDUNDANT row formats, and 3072 bytes for DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED row formats.

Adding or dropping a secondary index on a virtual column is an in-place operation.

Prior to 5.7.16, a foreign key constraint cannot reference a secondary index defined on a virtual generated column.

In MySQL 5.7.13 and earlier, InnoDB does not permit defining a foreign key constraint with a cascading referential action on the base column of an indexed generated virtual column. This restriction is lifted in MySQL 5.7.14.

Indexing a Generated Column to Provide a JSON Column Index

As noted elsewhere, JSON columns cannot be indexed directly. To create an index that references such a column indirectly, you can define a generated column that extracts the information that should be indexed, then create an index on the generated column, as shown in this example:

mysql> CREATE TABLE jemp (
    ->     c JSON,
    ->     g INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c->"$.id"),
    ->     INDEX i (g)
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.28 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO jemp (c) VALUES
     >   ('{"id": "1", "name": "Fred"}'), ('{"id": "2", "name": "Wilma"}'),
     >   ('{"id": "3", "name": "Barney"}'), ('{"id": "4", "name": "Betty"}');
Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.04 sec)
Records: 4  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT c->>"$.name" AS name
     >     FROM jemp WHERE g > 2;
+--------+
| name   |
+--------+
| Barney |
| Betty  |
+--------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT c->>"$.name" AS name
     >    FROM jemp WHERE g > 2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: jemp
   partitions: NULL
         type: range
possible_keys: i
          key: i
      key_len: 5
          ref: NULL
         rows: 2
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using where
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Note
   Code: 1003
Message: /* select#1 */ select json_unquote(json_extract(`test`.`jemp`.`c`,'$.name'))
AS `name` from `test`.`jemp` where (`test`.`jemp`.`g` > 2)
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

(We have wrapped the output from the last statement in this example to fit the viewing area.)

The -> operator is supported in MySQL 5.7.9 and later. The ->> operator is supported beginning with MySQL 5.7.13.

When you use EXPLAIN on a SELECT or other SQL statement containing one or more expressions that use the -> or ->> operator, these expressions are translated into their equivalents using JSON_EXTRACT() and (if needed) JSON_UNQUOTE() instead, as shown here in the output from SHOW WARNINGS immediately following this EXPLAIN statement:

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT c->>"$.name"
     > FROM jemp WHERE g > 2 ORDER BY c->"$.name"\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: jemp
   partitions: NULL
         type: range
possible_keys: i
          key: i
      key_len: 5
          ref: NULL
         rows: 2
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using where; Using filesort
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Note
   Code: 1003
Message: /* select#1 */ select json_unquote(json_extract(`test`.`jemp`.`c`,'$.name')) AS
`c->>"$.name"` from `test`.`jemp` where (`test`.`jemp`.`g` > 2) order by
json_extract(`test`.`jemp`.`c`,'$.name')
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

See the descriptions of the -> and ->> operators, as well as those of the JSON_EXTRACT() and JSON_UNQUOTE() functions, for additional information and examples.

This technique also can be used to provide indexes that indirectly reference columns of other types that cannot be indexed directly, such as GEOMETRY columns.

JSON columns and indirect indexing in NDB Cluster

It is also possible to use indirect indexing of JSON columns in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.3 and later, subject to the following conditions:

  1. NDB handles a JSON column value internally as a BLOB. This means that any NDB table having one or more JSON columns must have a primary key, else it cannot be recorded in the binary log.

  2. The NDB storage engine does not support indexing of virtual columns. Since the default for generated columns is VIRTUAL, you must specify explicitly the generated column to which to apply the indirect index as STORED.

The CREATE TABLE statement used to create the table jempn shown here is a version of the jemp table shown previously, with modifications making it compatible with NDB:

CREATE TABLE jempn (
  a BIGINT(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
  c JSON DEFAULT NULL,
  g INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c->"$.name") STORED,
  INDEX i (g)
) ENGINE=NDB;

We can populate this table using the following INSERT statement:

INSERT INTO jempn (a, c) VALUES   
  (NULL, '{"id": "1", "name": "Fred"}'), 
  (NULL, '{"id": "2", "name": "Wilma"}'),   
  (NULL, '{"id": "3", "name": "Barney"}'), 
  (NULL, '{"id": "4", "name": "Betty"}');

Now NDB can use index i, as shown here:

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT c->>"$.name" AS name         
          FROM jempn WHERE g > 2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: jempn
   partitions: p0,p1
         type: range
possible_keys: i
          key: i
      key_len: 5
          ref: NULL
         rows: 3
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using where with pushed condition (`test`.`jempn`.`g` > 2)
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Note
   Code: 1003
Message: /* select#1 */ select
json_unquote(json_extract(`test`.`jempn`.`c`,'$.name')) AS `name` from
`test`.`jempn` where (`test`.`jempn`.`g` > 2)  
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

You should keep in mind that a stored generated column uses DataMemory, and that an index on such a column uses IndexMemory.

13.1.18.10 Setting NDB_TABLE Options

In MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.2 and later, the table comment in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement can also be used to specify an NDB_TABLE option, which consists of one or more name-value pairs, separated by commas if need be, following the string NDB_TABLE=. Complete syntax for names and values syntax is shown here:

COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=ndb_table_option[,ndb_table_option[,...]]"

ndb_table_option:
    NOLOGGING={1|0}
  | READ_BACKUP={1|0}
  | PARTITION_BALANCE={FOR_RP_BY_NODE|FOR_RA_BY_NODE|FOR_RP_BY_LDM
                      |FOR_RA_BY_LDM|FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_2
                      |FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_3|FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_4}
  | FULLY_REPLICATED={1|0}

Spaces are not permitted within the quoted string. The string is case-insensitive.

The four NDB table options that can be set as part of a comment in this way are described in more detail in the next few paragraphs.

NOLOGGING: Using 1 corresponds to having ndb_table_no_logging enabled, but has no actual effect. Provided as a placeholder, mostly for completeness of ALTER TABLE statements.

READ_BACKUP: Setting this option to 1 has the same effect as though ndb_read_backup were enabled; enables reading from any replica. Starting with MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.3, you can set READ_BACKUP for an existing table online (Bug #80858, Bug #23001617), using an ALTER TABLE statement similar to one of those shown here:

ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE, COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=1";

ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE, COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0";

Prior to MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.4, setting READ_BACKUP to 1 also caused FRAGMENT_COUNT_TYPE to be set to ONE_PER_LDM_PER_NODE_GROUP.

For more information about the ALGORITHM option for ALTER TABLE, see Section 13.1.8.2, “ALTER TABLE Online Operations in NDB Cluster”.

PARTITION_BALANCE: Provides additional control over assignment and placement of partitions. The following four schemes are supported:

  1. FOR_RP_BY_NODE: One partition per node.

    Only one LDM on each node stores a primary partition. Each partition is stored in the same LDM (same ID) on all nodes.

  2. FOR_RA_BY_NODE: One partition per node group.

    Each node stores a single partition, which can be either a primary replica or a backup replica. Each partition is stored in the same LDM on all nodes.

  3. FOR_RP_BY_LDM: One partition for each LDM on each node; the default.

    This is the same behavior as prior to MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.2, except for a slightly different mapping of partitions to LDMs, starting with LDM 0 and placing one partition per node group, then moving on to the next LDM.

    In MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.4 and later, this is the setting used if READ_BACKUP is set to 1. (Bug #82634, Bug #24482114)

  4. FOR_RA_BY_LDM: One partition per LDM in each node group.

    These partitions can be primary or backup partitions.

    Prior to MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.4, this was the setting used if READ_BACKUP was set to 1.

  5. FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_2: Two partitions per LDM in each node group.

    These partitions can be primary or backup partitions.

    This setting was added in NDB 7.5.4.

  6. FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_3: Three partitions per LDM in each node group.

    These partitions can be primary or backup partitions.

    This setting was added in NDB 7.5.4.

  7. FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_4: Four partitions per LDM in each node group.

    These partitions can be primary or backup partitions.

    This setting was added in NDB 7.5.4.

Beginning with NDB 7.5.4, PARTITION_BALANCE is the preferred interface for setting the number of partitions per table. Using MAX_ROWS to force the number of partitions is deprecated as of NDB 7.5.4, continues to be supported in NDB 7.6 for backward compatibility, but is subject to removal in a future release of MySQL NDB Cluster. (Bug #81759, Bug #23544301)

Prior to MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.4, PARTITION_BALANCE was named FRAGMENT_COUNT_TYPE, and accepted as its value one of (in the same order as that of the listing just shown) ONE_PER_NODE, ONE_PER_NODE_GROUP, ONE_PER_LDM_PER_NODE, or ONE_PER_LDM_PER_NODE_GROUP. (Bug #81761, Bug #23547525)

FULLY_REPLICATED controls whether the table is fully replicated, that is, whether each data node has a complete copy of the table. To enable full replication of the table, use FULLY_REPLICATED=1. You must also set (or have already set) the table's PARTITION_BALANCE to either one of FOR_RA_BY_NODE or FOR_RA_BY_LDM in order for this to work.

This setting can also be controlled using the ndb_fully_replicated system variable. Setting it to ON enables the option by default for all new NDB tables; the default is OFF, which maintains the previous behavior (as in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.1 and earlier, before support for fully replicated tables was introduced). The ndb_data_node_neighbour system variable is also used for fully replicated tables, to ensure that when a fully replicated table is accessed, we access the data node which is local to this MySQL Server.

An example of a CREATE TABLE statement using such a comment when creating an NDB table is shown here:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
     >     c1 INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
     >     c2 VARCHAR(100),
     >     c3 VARCHAR(100) )
     > ENGINE=NDB
     >
COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RP_BY_NODE";

The comment is displayed as part of the ouput of SHOW CREATE TABLE. The text of the comment is also available from querying the MySQL Information Schema TABLES table, as in this example:

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_COMMENT
     > FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME="t1";
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_COMMENT                                            |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| t1         | c            | NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RP_BY_NODE |
| t1         | d            |                                                          |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This comment syntax is also supported with ALTER TABLE statements for NDB tables. Keep in mind that a table comment used with ALTER TABLE replaces any existing comment which the table might have.

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.40 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_COMMENT
     > FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME="t1";
+------------+--------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_COMMENT                                    |
+------------+--------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| t1         | c            | NDB_TABLE=PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE       |
| t1         | d            |                                                  |
+------------+--------------+--------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

You can also see the value of the PARTITION_BALANCE option in the output of ndb_desc. ndb_desc also shows whether the READ_BACKUP and FULLY_REPLICATED options are set for the table. See the description of this program for more information.

Because the READ_BACKUP value was not carried over to the new comment set by the ALTER TABLE statement, there is no longer a way using SQL to retrieve the value previously set for it. To keep this from happening, it is suggested that you preserve any such values from the existing comment string, like this:

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_COMMENT
     > FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME="t1";
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_COMMENT                                            |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| t1         | c            | NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RP_BY_NODE |
| t1         | d            |                                                          |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.56 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_COMMENT
     > FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME="t1";
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_COMMENT                                                  |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| t1         | c            | NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE       |
| t1         | d            |                                                                |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

13.1.19 CREATE TABLESPACE Syntax

CREATE TABLESPACE tablespace_name

  InnoDB and NDB:
    ADD DATAFILE 'file_name'

  InnoDB only:
    [FILE_BLOCK_SIZE = value]

  NDB only:
    USE LOGFILE GROUP logfile_group
    [EXTENT_SIZE [=] extent_size]
    [INITIAL_SIZE [=] initial_size]
    [AUTOEXTEND_SIZE [=] autoextend_size]
    [MAX_SIZE [=] max_size]
    [NODEGROUP [=] nodegroup_id]
    [WAIT]
    [COMMENT [=] comment_text]

  InnoDB and NDB:
    [ENGINE [=] engine_name]

This statement is used to create a tablespace. The precise syntax and semantics depend on the storage engine used. In standard MySQL 5.7 releases, this is always an InnoDB tablespace. MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 also supports tablespaces using the NDB storage engine in addition to those using InnoDB.

Considerations for InnoDB

An InnoDB tablespace created using CREATE TABLESPACE is referred to as a general tablespace. This is a shared tablespace, similar to the system tablespace. It can hold multiple tables, and supports all table row formats. General tablespaces can be created in a location relative to or independent of the MySQL data directory.

After creating an InnoDB general tablespace, you can use CREATE TABLE tbl_name ... TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name or ALTER TABLE tbl_name TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name to add tables to the tablespace.

For more information, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”.

Considerations for NDB Cluster

This statement is used to create a tablespace, which can contain one or more data files, providing storage space for NDB Cluster Disk Data tables (see Section 21.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”). One data file is created and added to the tablespace using this statement. Additional data files may be added to the tablespace by using the ALTER TABLESPACE statement (see Section 13.1.9, “ALTER TABLESPACE Syntax”).

Note

All NDB Cluster Disk Data objects share the same namespace. This means that each Disk Data object must be uniquely named (and not merely each Disk Data object of a given type). For example, you cannot have a tablespace and a log file group with the same name, or a tablespace and a data file with the same name.

A log file group of one or more UNDO log files must be assigned to the tablespace to be created with the USE LOGFILE GROUP clause. logfile_group must be an existing log file group created with CREATE LOGFILE GROUP (see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax”). Multiple tablespaces may use the same log file group for UNDO logging.

When setting EXTENT_SIZE or INITIAL_SIZE, you may optionally follow the number with a one-letter abbreviation for an order of magnitude, similar to those used in my.cnf. Generally, this is one of the letters M (for megabytes) or G (for gigabytes).

INITIAL_SIZE and EXTENT_SIZE are subject to rounding as follows:

  • EXTENT_SIZE is rounded up to the nearest whole multiple of 32K.

  • INITIAL_SIZE is rounded down to the nearest whole multiple of 32K; this result is rounded up to the nearest whole multiple of EXTENT_SIZE (after any rounding).

The rounding just described is done explicitly, and a warning is issued by the MySQL Server when any such rounding is performed. The rounded values are also used by the NDB kernel for calculating INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES column values and other purposes. However, to avoid an unexpected result, we suggest that you always use whole multiples of 32K in specifying these options.

When CREATE TABLESPACE is used with ENGINE [=] NDB, a tablespace and associated data file are created on each Cluster data node. You can verify that the data files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table. (See the example later in this section.)

(See Section 24.8, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table”.)

Options

  • ADD DATAFILE: Defines the name of a tablespace data file; this option is always required. An InnoDB tablespace supports only a single data file, whose name must include a .ibd extension. An NDB Cluster tablespace supports multiple data files which can have any legal file names; more data files can be added to an NDB Cluster tablespace following its creation by using an ALTER TABLESPACE statement.

    Note

    ALTER TABLESPACE is not supported by InnoDB.

    To place the data file in a location outside of the MySQL data directory (datadir), include an absolute directory path or a path relative to the MySQL data directory. If you do not specify a path, the tablespace is created in the MySQL data directory. An isl file is created in the MySQL data directory when an InnoDB tablespace is created outside of the MySQL data directory.

    To avoid conflicts with implicitly created file-per-table tablespaces, creating a general tablespace in a subdirectory under the MySQL data directory is not supported. Also, when creating a general tablespace outside of the MySQL data directory, the directory must exist prior to creating the tablespace.

    The file_name, including the path (optional), must be quoted with single or double quotations marks. File names (not counting any .ibd extension for InnoDB files) and directory names must be at least one byte in length. Zero length file names and directory names are not supported.

  • FILE_BLOCK_SIZE: This option—which is specific to InnoDB, and is ignored by NDB—defines the block size for the tablespace data file. If you do not specify this option, FILE_BLOCK_SIZE defaults to innodb_page_size. FILE_BLOCK_SIZE is required when you intend to use the tablespace for storing compressed InnoDB tables (ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED).

    If FILE_BLOCK_SIZE is equal innodb_page_size, the tablespace can contain only tables having an uncompressed row format (COMPACT, REDUNDANT, or DYNAMIC). The physical page size for tables using COMPRESSED differs from that of uncompressed tables; this means that compressed tables and uncompressed tables cannot coexist in the same tablespace.

    For a general tablespace to contain compressed tables, FILE_BLOCK_SIZE must be specified, and the FILE_BLOCK_SIZE value must be a valid compressed page size in relation to the innodb_page_size value. Also, the physical page size of the compressed table (KEY_BLOCK_SIZE) must be equal to FILE_BLOCK_SIZE/1024. For example, if innodb_page_size=16K, and FILE_BLOCK_SIZE=8K, the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE of the table must be 8. For more information, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”.

  • USE LOGFILE GROUP: Required for NDB, this is the name of a log file group previously created using CREATE LOGFILE GROUP. Not supported for InnoDB, where it fails with an error.

  • EXTENT_SIZE: This option is specific to NDB, and is not supported by InnoDB, where it fails with an error. EXTENT_SIZE sets the size, in bytes, of the extents used by any files belonging to the tablespace. The default value is 1M. The minimum size is 32K, and theoretical maximum is 2G, although the practical maximum size depends on a number of factors. In most cases, changing the extent size does not have any measurable effect on performance, and the default value is recommended for all but the most unusual situations.

    An extent is a unit of disk space allocation. One extent is filled with as much data as that extent can contain before another extent is used. In theory, up to 65,535 (64K) extents may used per data file; however, the recommended maximum is 32,768 (32K). The recommended maximum size for a single data file is 32G—that is, 32K extents × 1 MB per extent. In addition, once an extent is allocated to a given partition, it cannot be used to store data from a different partition; an extent cannot store data from more than one partition. This means, for example that a tablespace having a single datafile whose INITIAL_SIZE (described in the following item) is 256 MB and whose EXTENT_SIZE is 128M has just two extents, and so can be used to store data from at most two different disk data table partitions.

    You can see how many extents remain free in a given data file by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table, and so derive an estimate for how much space remains free in the file. For further discussion and examples, see Section 24.8, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table”.

  • INITIAL_SIZE: This option is specific to NDB, and is not supported by InnoDB, where it fails with an error.

    The INITIAL_SIZE parameter sets the total size in bytes of the data file that was specific using ADD DATATFILE. Once this file has been created, its size cannot be changed; however, you can add more data files to the tablespace using ALTER TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE.

    INITIAL_SIZE is optional; its default value is 134217728 (128 MB).

    On 32-bit systems, the maximum supported value for INITIAL_SIZE is 4294967296 (4 GB).

  • AUTOEXTEND_SIZE: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 5.7 or MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • MAX_SIZE: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 5.7 or MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • NODEGROUP: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 5.7 or MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • WAIT: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 5.7 or MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • COMMENT: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 5.7 or MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • ENGINE: Defines the storage engine which uses the tablespace, where engine_name is the name of the storage engine. Currently, only the InnoDB storage engine is supported by standard MySQL 5.7 releases. MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 supports both NDB and InnoDB tablespaces. The value of the default_storage_engine system variable is used for ENGINE if the option is not specified.

Notes

  • For the rules covering the naming of MySQL tablespaces, see Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”. In addition to these rules, the slash character (/) is not permitted, nor can you use names beginning with innodb_, as this prefix is reserved for system use.

  • Tablespaces do not support temporary tables.

  • The TABLESPACE option may be used with CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE to assign InnoDB table partitions or subpartitions to a general tablespace, a separate file-per-table tablespace, or the system tablespace. TABLESPACE option support for table partitions and subpartitions was added in MySQL 5.7. All partitions must belong to the same storage engine. For more information, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”.

  • innodb_file_per_table, innodb_file_format, and innodb_file_format_max settings have no influence on CREATE TABLESPACE operations. innodb_file_per_table does not need to be enabled. General tablespaces support all table row formats regardless of file format settings. Likewise, general tablespaces support the addition of tables of any row format using CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE, regardless of file format settings.

  • innodb_strict_mode is not applicable to general tablespaces. Tablespace management rules are strictly enforced independently of innodb_strict_mode. If CREATE TABLESPACE parameters are incorrect or incompatible, the operation fails regardless of the innodb_strict_mode setting. When a table is added to a general tablespace using CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE or ALTER TABLE ... TABLESPACE, innodb_strict_mode is ignored but the statement is evaluated as if innodb_strict_mode is enabled.

  • Use DROP TABLESPACE to remove a tablespace. All tables must be dropped from a tablespace using DROP TABLE prior to dropping the tablespace. Before dropping an NDB Cluster tablespace you must also remove all its data files using one or more ALTER TABLESPACE ... DROP DATATFILE statements. See Section 21.5.13.1, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Objects”.

  • All parts of an InnoDB table added to an InnoDB general tablespace reside in the general tablespace, including indexes and BLOB pages.

    For an NDB table assigned to a tablespace, only those columns which are not indexed are stored on disk, and actually use the tablespace data files. Indexes and indexed columns for all NDB tables are always kept in memory.

  • Similar to the system tablespace, truncating or dropping tables stored in a general tablespace creates free space internally in the general tablespace .ibd data file which can only be used for new InnoDB data. Space is not released back to the operating system as it is for file-per-table tablespaces.

  • A general tablespace is not associated with any database or schema.

  • ALTER TABLE ... DISCARD TABLESPACE and ALTER TABLE ...IMPORT TABLESPACE are not supported for tables that belong to a general tablespace.

  • The server uses tablespace-level metadata locking for DDL that references general tablespaces. By comparison, the server uses table-level metadata locking for DDL that references file-per-table tablespaces.

  • A generated or existing tablespace cannot be changed to a general tablespace.

  • Tables stored in a general tablespace can only be opened in MySQL 5.7.6 or later due to the addition of new table flags.

  • There is no conflict between general tablespace names and file-per-table tablespace names. The / character, which is present in file-per-table tablespace names, is not permitted in general tablespace names.

InnoDB Examples

This example demonstrates creating a general tablespace and adding three uncompressed tables of different row formats.

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE `ts1`
    ->     ADD DATAFILE 'ts1.ibd'
    ->     ENGINE=INNODB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY)
    ->     TABLESPACE ts1
    ->     ROW_FORMAT=REDUNDANT;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE t2 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY)
    ->     TABLESPACE ts1
    ->     ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE t3 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY)
    ->     TABLESPACE ts1
    ->     ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

This example demonstrates creating a general tablespace and adding a compressed table. The example assumes a default innodb_page_size of 16K. The FILE_BLOCK_SIZE of 8192 requires that the compressed table have a KEY_BLOCK_SIZE of 8.

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE `ts2`
    ->   ADD DATAFILE 'ts2.ibd'
    ->   FILE_BLOCK_SIZE = 8192
    ->   ENGINE=INNODB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE t4 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY)
    ->   TABLESPACE ts2
    ->   ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED
    ->   KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

NDB Example

Suppose that you wish to create an NDB Cluster Disk Data tablespace named myts using a datafile named mydata-1.dat. An NDB tablespace always requires the use of a log file group consisting of one or more undo log files. For this example, we first create a log file group named mylg that contains one undo long file named myundo-1.dat, using the CREATE LOGFILE GROUP statement shown here:

mysql> CREATE LOGFILE GROUP myg1
    ->     ADD UNDOFILE 'myundo-1.dat'
    ->     ENGINE=NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (3.29 sec)

Now you can create the tablespace previously described using the following statement:

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE myts
    ->     ADD DATAFILE 'mydata-1.dat'
    ->     USE LOGFILE GROUP mylg
    ->     ENGINE=NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (2.98 sec)

You can now create a Disk Data table using a CREATE TABLE statement with the TABLESPACE and STORAGE DISK options, similar to what is shown here:

mysql> CREATE TABLE mytable (
    ->     id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
    ->     lname VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
    ->     fname VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
    ->     dob DATE NOT NULL,
    ->     joined DATE NOT NULL,
    ->     INDEX(last_name, first_name)
    -> )
    ->     TABLESPACE myts STORAGE DISK
    ->     ENGINE=NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.41 sec)

It is important to note that only the dob and joined columns from mytable are actually stored on disk, due to the fact that the id, lname, and fname columns are all indexed.

As mentioned previously, when CREATE TABLESPACE is used with ENGINE [=] NDB, a tablespace and associated data file are created on each NDB Cluster data node. You can verify that the data files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table, as shown here:

mysql> SELECT FILE_NAME, FILE_TYPE, LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME, STATUS, EXTRA
    ->     FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
    ->     WHERE TABLESPACE_NAME = 'myts';

+--------------+------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| file_name    | file_type  | logfile_group_name | status | extra          |
+--------------+------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| mydata-1.dat | DATAFILE   | mylg               | NORMAL | CLUSTER_NODE=5 |
| mydata-1.dat | DATAFILE   | mylg               | NORMAL | CLUSTER_NODE=6 |
| NULL         | TABLESPACE | mylg               | NORMAL | NULL           |
+--------------+------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

For additional information and examples, see Section 21.5.13.1, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Objects”.

13.1.20 CREATE TRIGGER Syntax

CREATE
    [DEFINER = { user | CURRENT_USER }]
    TRIGGER trigger_name
    trigger_time trigger_event
    ON tbl_name FOR EACH ROW
    [trigger_order]
    trigger_body

trigger_time: { BEFORE | AFTER }

trigger_event: { INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE }

trigger_order: { FOLLOWS | PRECEDES } other_trigger_name

This statement creates a new trigger. A trigger is a named database object that is associated with a table, and that activates when a particular event occurs for the table. The trigger becomes associated with the table named tbl_name, which must refer to a permanent table. You cannot associate a trigger with a TEMPORARY table or a view.

Trigger names exist in the schema namespace, meaning that all triggers must have unique names within a schema. Triggers in different schemas can have the same name.

This section describes CREATE TRIGGER syntax. For additional discussion, see Section 23.3.1, “Trigger Syntax and Examples”.

CREATE TRIGGER requires the TRIGGER privilege for the table associated with the trigger. The statement might also require the SUPER privilege, depending on the DEFINER value, as described later in this section. If binary logging is enabled, CREATE TRIGGER might require the SUPER privilege, as described in Section 23.7, “Binary Logging of Stored Programs”.

The DEFINER clause determines the security context to be used when checking access privileges at trigger activation time, as described later in this section.

trigger_time is the trigger action time. It can be BEFORE or AFTER to indicate that the trigger activates before or after each row to be modified.

Basic column value checks occur prior to trigger activation, so you cannot use BEFORE triggers to convert values inappropriate for the column type to valid values.

trigger_event indicates the kind of operation that activates the trigger. These trigger_event values are permitted:

  • INSERT: The trigger activates whenever a new row is inserted into the table; for example, through INSERT, LOAD DATA, and REPLACE statements.

  • UPDATE: The trigger activates whenever a row is modified; for example, through UPDATE statements.

  • DELETE: The trigger activates whenever a row is deleted from the table; for example, through DELETE and REPLACE statements. DROP TABLE and TRUNCATE TABLE statements on the table do not activate this trigger, because they do not use DELETE. Dropping a partition does not activate DELETE triggers, either.

The trigger_event does not represent a literal type of SQL statement that activates the trigger so much as it represents a type of table operation. For example, an INSERT trigger activates not only for INSERT statements but also LOAD DATA statements because both statements insert rows into a table.

A potentially confusing example of this is the INSERT INTO ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE ... syntax: a BEFORE INSERT trigger activates for every row, followed by either an AFTER INSERT trigger or both the BEFORE UPDATE and AFTER UPDATE triggers, depending on whether there was a duplicate key for the row.

Note

Cascaded foreign key actions do not activate triggers.

As of MySQL 5.7.2, it is possible to define multiple triggers for a given table that have the same trigger event and action time. For example, you can have two BEFORE UPDATE triggers for a table. By default, triggers that have the same trigger event and action time activate in the order they were created. To affect trigger order, specify a trigger_order clause that indicates FOLLOWS or PRECEDES and the name of an existing trigger that also has the same trigger event and action time. With FOLLOWS, the new trigger activates after the existing trigger. With PRECEDES, the new trigger activates before the existing trigger.

Before MySQL 5.7.2, there cannot be multiple triggers for a given table that have the same trigger event and action time. For example, you cannot have two BEFORE UPDATE triggers for a table. But you can have a BEFORE UPDATE and a BEFORE INSERT trigger, or a BEFORE UPDATE and an AFTER UPDATE trigger.

trigger_body is the statement to execute when the trigger activates. To execute multiple statements, use the BEGIN ... END compound statement construct. This also enables you to use the same statements that are permitted within stored routines. See Section 13.6.1, “BEGIN ... END Compound-Statement Syntax”. Some statements are not permitted in triggers; see Section C.1, “Restrictions on Stored Programs”.

Within the trigger body, you can refer to columns in the subject table (the table associated with the trigger) by using the aliases OLD and NEW. OLD.col_name refers to a column of an existing row before it is updated or deleted. NEW.col_name refers to the column of a new row to be inserted or an existing row after it is updated.

Triggers cannot use NEW.col_name or use OLD.col_name to refer to generated columns. For information about generated columns, see Section 13.1.18.8, “CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns”.

MySQL stores the sql_mode system variable setting in effect when a trigger is created, and always executes the trigger body with this setting in force, regardless of the current server SQL mode when the trigger begins executing.

The DEFINER clause specifies the MySQL account to be used when checking access privileges at trigger activation time. If a user value is given, it should be a MySQL account specified as 'user_name'@'host_name', CURRENT_USER, or CURRENT_USER(). The default DEFINER value is the user who executes the CREATE TRIGGER statement. This is the same as specifying DEFINER = CURRENT_USER explicitly.

If you specify the DEFINER clause, these rules determine the valid DEFINER user values:

  • If you do not have the SUPER privilege, the only permitted user value is your own account, either specified literally or by using CURRENT_USER. You cannot set the definer to some other account.

  • If you have the SUPER privilege, you can specify any syntactically valid account name. If the account does not exist, a warning is generated.

  • Although it is possible to create a trigger with a nonexistent DEFINER account, it is not a good idea for such triggers to be activated until the account actually does exist. Otherwise, the behavior with respect to privilege checking is undefined.

MySQL takes the DEFINER user into account when checking trigger privileges as follows:

  • At CREATE TRIGGER time, the user who issues the statement must have the TRIGGER privilege.

  • At trigger activation time, privileges are checked against the DEFINER user. This user must have these privileges:

    • The TRIGGER privilege for the subject table.

    • The SELECT privilege for the subject table if references to table columns occur using OLD.col_name or NEW.col_name in the trigger body.

    • The UPDATE privilege for the subject table if table columns are targets of SET NEW.col_name = value assignments in the trigger body.

    • Whatever other privileges normally are required for the statements executed by the trigger.

For more information about trigger security, see Section 23.6, “Access Control for Stored Programs and Views”.

Within a trigger body, the CURRENT_USER() function returns the account used to check privileges at trigger activation time. This is the DEFINER user, not the user whose actions caused the trigger to be activated. For information about user auditing within triggers, see Section 6.3.12, “SQL-Based MySQL Account Activity Auditing”.

If you use LOCK TABLES to lock a table that has triggers, the tables used within the trigger are also locked, as described in Section 13.3.5.2, “LOCK TABLES and Triggers”.

For additional discussion of trigger use, see Section 23.3.1, “Trigger Syntax and Examples”.

13.1.21 CREATE VIEW Syntax

CREATE
    [OR REPLACE]
    [ALGORITHM = {UNDEFINED | MERGE | TEMPTABLE}]
    [DEFINER = { user | CURRENT_USER }]
    [SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }]
    VIEW view_name [(column_list)]
    AS select_statement
    [WITH [CASCADED | LOCAL] CHECK OPTION]

The CREATE VIEW statement creates a new view, or replaces an existing view if the OR REPLACE clause is given. If the view does not exist, CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW is the same as CREATE VIEW. If the view does exist, CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW is the same as ALTER VIEW.

For information about restrictions on view use, see Section C.5, “Restrictions on Views”.

The select_statement is a SELECT statement that provides the definition of the view. (Selecting from the view selects, in effect, using the SELECT statement.) The select_statement can select from base tables or other views.

The view definition is frozen at creation time and is not affected by subsequent changes to the definitions of the underlying tables. For example, if a view is defined as SELECT * on a table, new columns added to the table later do not become part of the view, and columns dropped from the table will result in an error when selecting from the view.

The ALGORITHM clause affects how MySQL processes the view. The DEFINER and SQL SECURITY clauses specify the security context to be used when checking access privileges at view invocation time. The WITH CHECK OPTION clause can be given to constrain inserts or updates to rows in tables referenced by the view. These clauses are described later in this section.

The CREATE VIEW statement requires the CREATE VIEW privilege for the view, and some privilege for each column selected by the SELECT statement. For columns used elsewhere in the SELECT statement, you must have the SELECT privilege. If the OR REPLACE clause is present, you must also have the DROP privilege for the view. CREATE VIEW might also require the SUPER privilege, depending on the DEFINER value, as described later in this section.

When a view is referenced, privilege checking occurs as described later in this section.

A view belongs to a database. By default, a new view is created in the default database. To create the view explicitly in a given database, use db_name.view_name syntax to qualify the view name with the database name:

CREATE VIEW test.v AS SELECT * FROM t;

Unqualified table or view names in the SELECT statement are also interpreted with respect to the default database. A view can refer to tables or views in other databases by qualifying the table or view name with the appropriate database name.

Within a database, base tables and views share the same namespace, so a base table and a view cannot have the same name.

Columns retrieved by the SELECT statement can be simple references to table columns, or expressions that use functions, constant values, operators, and so forth.

A view must have unique column names with no duplicates, just like a base table. By default, the names of the columns retrieved by the SELECT statement are used for the view column names. To define explicit names for the view columns, specify the optional column_list clause as a list of comma-separated identifiers. The number of names in column_list must be the same as the number of columns retrieved by the SELECT statement.

A view can be created from many kinds of SELECT statements. It can refer to base tables or other views. It can use joins, UNION, and subqueries. The SELECT need not even refer to any tables:

CREATE VIEW v_today (today) AS SELECT CURRENT_DATE;

The following example defines a view that selects two columns from another table as well as an expression calculated from those columns:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t (qty INT, price INT);
mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(3, 50);
mysql> CREATE VIEW v AS SELECT qty, price, qty*price AS value FROM t;
mysql> SELECT * FROM v;
+------+-------+-------+
| qty  | price | value |
+------+-------+-------+
|    3 |    50 |   150 |
+------+-------+-------+

A view definition is subject to the following restrictions:

  • Before MySQL 5.7.7, the SELECT statement cannot contain a subquery in the FROM clause.

  • The SELECT statement cannot refer to system variables or user-defined variables.

  • Within a stored program, the SELECT statement cannot refer to program parameters or local variables.

  • The SELECT statement cannot refer to prepared statement parameters.

  • Any table or view referred to in the definition must exist. If, after the view has been created, a table or view that the definition refers to is dropped, use of the view results in an error. To check a view definition for problems of this kind, use the CHECK TABLE statement.

  • The definition cannot refer to a TEMPORARY table, and you cannot create a TEMPORARY view.

  • You cannot associate a trigger with a view.

  • Aliases for column names in the SELECT statement are checked against the maximum column length of 64 characters (not the maximum alias length of 256 characters).

ORDER BY is permitted in a view definition, but it is ignored if you select from a view using a statement that has its own ORDER BY.

For other options or clauses in the definition, they are added to the options or clauses of the statement that references the view, but the effect is undefined. For example, if a view definition includes a LIMIT clause, and you select from the view using a statement that has its own LIMIT clause, it is undefined which limit applies. This same principle applies to options such as ALL, DISTINCT, or SQL_SMALL_RESULT that follow the SELECT keyword, and to clauses such as INTO, FOR UPDATE, LOCK IN SHARE MODE, and PROCEDURE.

The results obtained from a view may be affected if you change the query processing environment by changing system variables:

mysql> CREATE VIEW v (mycol) AS SELECT 'abc';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> SET sql_mode = '';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT "mycol" FROM v;
+-------+
| mycol |
+-------+
| mycol |
+-------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> SET sql_mode = 'ANSI_QUOTES';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT "mycol" FROM v;
+-------+
| mycol |
+-------+
| abc   |
+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The DEFINER and SQL SECURITY clauses determine which MySQL account to use when checking access privileges for the view when a statement is executed that references the view. The valid SQL SECURITY characteristic values are DEFINER (the default) and INVOKER. These indicate that the required privileges must be held by the user who defined or invoked the view, respectively.

If a user value is given for the DEFINER clause, it should be a MySQL account specified as 'user_name'@'host_name', CURRENT_USER, or CURRENT_USER(). The default DEFINER value is the user who executes the CREATE VIEW statement. This is the same as specifying DEFINER = CURRENT_USER explicitly.

If the DEFINER clause is present, these rules determine the valid DEFINER user values:

  • If you do not have the SUPER privilege, the only valid user value is your own account, either specified literally or by using CURRENT_USER. You cannot set the definer to some other account.

  • If you have the SUPER privilege, you can specify any syntactically valid account name. If the account does not exist, a warning is generated.

  • Although it is possible to create a view with a nonexistent DEFINER account, an error occurs when the view is referenced if the SQL SECURITY value is DEFINER but the definer account does not exist.

For more information about view security, see Section 23.6, “Access Control for Stored Programs and Views”.

Within a view definition, CURRENT_USER returns the view's DEFINER value by default. For views defined with the SQL SECURITY INVOKER characteristic, CURRENT_USER returns the account for the view's invoker. For information about user auditing within views, see Section 6.3.12, “SQL-Based MySQL Account Activity Auditing”.

Within a stored routine that is defined with the SQL SECURITY DEFINER characteristic, CURRENT_USER returns the routine's DEFINER value. This also affects a view defined within such a routine, if the view definition contains a DEFINER value of CURRENT_USER.

MySQL checks view privileges like this:

  • At view definition time, the view creator must have the privileges needed to use the top-level objects accessed by the view. For example, if the view definition refers to table columns, the creator must have some privilege for each column in the select list of the definition, and the SELECT privilege for each column used elsewhere in the definition. If the definition refers to a stored function, only the privileges needed to invoke the function can be checked. The privileges required at function invocation time can be checked only as it executes: For different invocations, different execution paths within the function might be taken.

  • The user who references a view must have appropriate privileges to access it (SELECT to select from it, INSERT to insert into it, and so forth.)

  • When a view has been referenced, privileges for objects accessed by the view are checked against the privileges held by the view DEFINER account or invoker, depending on whether the SQL SECURITY characteristic is DEFINER or INVOKER, respectively.

  • If reference to a view causes execution of a stored function, privilege checking for statements executed within the function depend on whether the function SQL SECURITY characteristic is DEFINER or INVOKER. If the security characteristic is DEFINER, the function runs with the privileges of the DEFINER account. If the characteristic is INVOKER, the function runs with the privileges determined by the view's SQL SECURITY characteristic.

Example: A view might depend on a stored function, and that function might invoke other stored routines. For example, the following view invokes a stored function f():

CREATE VIEW v AS SELECT * FROM t WHERE t.id = f(t.name);

Suppose that f() contains a statement such as this:

IF name IS NULL then
  CALL p1();
ELSE
  CALL p2();
END IF;

The privileges required for executing statements within f() need to be checked when f() executes. This might mean that privileges are needed for p1() or p2(), depending on the execution path within f(). Those privileges must be checked at runtime, and the user who must possess the privileges is determined by the SQL SECURITY values of the view v and the function f().

The DEFINER and SQL SECURITY clauses for views are extensions to standard SQL. In standard SQL, views are handled using the rules for SQL SECURITY DEFINER. The standard says that the definer of the view, which is the same as the owner of the view's schema, gets applicable privileges on the view (for example, SELECT) and may grant them. MySQL has no concept of a schema owner, so MySQL adds a clause to identify the definer. The DEFINER clause is an extension where the intent is to have what the standard has; that is, a permanent record of who defined the view. This is why the default DEFINER value is the account of the view creator.

The optional ALGORITHM clause is a MySQL extension to standard SQL. It affects how MySQL processes the view. ALGORITHM takes three values: MERGE, TEMPTABLE, or UNDEFINED. For more information, see Section 23.5.2, “View Processing Algorithms”, as well as Section 8.2.2.3, “Optimizing Derived Tables and View References”.

Some views are updatable. That is, you can use them in statements such as UPDATE, DELETE, or INSERT to update the contents of the underlying table. For a view to be updatable, there must be a one-to-one relationship between the rows in the view and the rows in the underlying table. There are also certain other constructs that make a view nonupdatable.

A generated column in a view is considered updatable because it is possible to assign to it. However, if such a column is updated explicitly, the only permitted value is DEFAULT. For information about generated columns, see Section 13.1.18.8, “CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns”.

The WITH CHECK OPTION clause can be given for an updatable view to prevent inserts or updates to rows except those for which the WHERE clause in the select_statement is true.

In a WITH CHECK OPTION clause for an updatable view, the LOCAL and CASCADED keywords determine the scope of check testing when the view is defined in terms of another view. The LOCAL keyword restricts the CHECK OPTION only to the view being defined. CASCADED causes the checks for underlying views to be evaluated as well. When neither keyword is given, the default is CASCADED.

For more information about updatable views and the WITH CHECK OPTION clause, see Section 23.5.3, “Updatable and Insertable Views”, and Section 23.5.4, “The View WITH CHECK OPTION Clause”.

Views created before MySQL 5.7.3 containing ORDER BY integer can result in errors at view evaluation time. Consider these view definitions, which use ORDER BY with an ordinal number:

CREATE VIEW v1 AS SELECT x, y, z FROM t ORDER BY 2;
CREATE VIEW v2 AS SELECT x, 1, z FROM t ORDER BY 2;

In the first case, ORDER BY 2 refers to a named column y. In the second case, it refers to a constant 1. For queries that select from either view fewer than 2 columns (the number named in the ORDER BY clause), an error occurs if the server evaluates the view using the MERGE algorithm. Examples:

mysql> SELECT x FROM v1;
ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column '2' in 'order clause'
mysql> SELECT x FROM v2;
ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column '2' in 'order clause'

As of MySQL 5.7.3, to handle view definitions like this, the server writes them differently into the .frm file that stores the view definition. This difference is visible with SHOW CREATE VIEW. Previously, the .frm file contained this for the ORDER BY 2 clause:

For v1: ORDER BY 2
For v2: ORDER BY 2

As of 5.7.3, the .frm file contains this:

For v1: ORDER BY `t`.`y`
For v2: ORDER BY ''

That is, for v1, 2 is replaced by a reference to the name of the column referred to. For v2, 2 is replaced by a constant string expression (ordering by a constant has no effect, so ordering by any constant will do).

If you experience view-evaluation errors such as just described, drop and recreate the view so that the .frm file contains the updated view representation. Alternatively, for views like v2 that order by a constant value, drop and recreate the view with no ORDER BY clause.

13.1.22 DROP DATABASE Syntax

DROP {DATABASE | SCHEMA} [IF EXISTS] db_name

DROP DATABASE drops all tables in the database and deletes the database. Be very careful with this statement! To use DROP DATABASE, you need the DROP privilege on the database. DROP SCHEMA is a synonym for DROP DATABASE.

Important

When a database is dropped, privileges granted specifically for the database are not automatically dropped. They must be dropped manually. See Section 13.7.1.4, “GRANT Syntax”.

IF EXISTS is used to prevent an error from occurring if the database does not exist.

If the default database is dropped, the default database is unset (the DATABASE() function returns NULL).

If you use DROP DATABASE on a symbolically linked database, both the link and the original database are deleted.

DROP DATABASE returns the number of tables that were removed. This corresponds to the number of .frm files removed.

The DROP DATABASE statement removes from the given database directory those files and directories that MySQL itself may create during normal operation:

  • All files with the following extensions.

    .BAK.DAT.HSH.MRG
    .MYD.MYI.TRG.TRN
    .cfg.db.frm.ibd
    .ndb.par  
  • The db.opt file, if it exists.

If other files or directories remain in the database directory after MySQL removes those just listed, the database directory cannot be removed. In this case, you must remove any remaining files or directories manually and issue the DROP DATABASE statement again.

Dropping a database does not remove any TEMPORARY tables that were created in that database. TEMPORARY tables are automatically removed when the session that created them ends. See Section 13.1.18.3, “CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE Syntax”.

You can also drop databases with mysqladmin. See Section 4.5.2, “mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server”.

13.1.23 DROP EVENT Syntax

DROP EVENT [IF EXISTS] event_name

This statement drops the event named event_name. The event immediately ceases being active, and is deleted completely from the server.

If the event does not exist, the error ERROR 1517 (HY000): Unknown event 'event_name' results. You can override this and cause the statement to generate a warning for nonexistent events instead using IF EXISTS.

This statement requires the EVENT privilege for the schema to which the event to be dropped belongs.

13.1.24 DROP FUNCTION Syntax

The DROP FUNCTION statement is used to drop stored functions and user-defined functions (UDFs):

13.1.25 DROP INDEX Syntax

DROP INDEX index_name ON tbl_name
    [algorithm_option | lock_option] ...

algorithm_option:
    ALGORITHM [=] {DEFAULT|INPLACE|COPY}

lock_option:
    LOCK [=] {DEFAULT|NONE|SHARED|EXCLUSIVE}

DROP INDEX drops the index named index_name from the table tbl_name. This statement is mapped to an ALTER TABLE statement to drop the index. See Section 13.1.8, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”.

To drop a primary key, the index name is always PRIMARY, which must be specified as a quoted identifier because PRIMARY is a reserved word:

DROP INDEX `PRIMARY` ON t;

Indexes on variable-width columns of NDB tables are dropped online; that is, without any table copying. The table is not locked against access from other NDB Cluster API nodes, although it is locked against other operations on the same API node for the duration of the operation. This is done automatically by the server whenever it determines that it is possible to do so; you do not have to use any special SQL syntax or server options to cause it to happen.

ALGORITHM and LOCK clauses may be given. These influence the table copying method and level of concurrency for reading and writing the table while its indexes are being modified. They have the same meaning as for the ALTER TABLE statement. For more information, see Section 13.1.8, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”

NDB Cluster formerly supported online DROP INDEX operations using the ONLINE and OFFLINE keywords. These keywords are no longer supported in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and later, and their use causes a syntax error. Instead, MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and later support online operations using the same ALGORITHM=INPLACE syntax used with the standard MySQL Server. See Section 13.1.8.2, “ALTER TABLE Online Operations in NDB Cluster”, for more information.

13.1.26 DROP LOGFILE GROUP Syntax

DROP LOGFILE GROUP logfile_group
    ENGINE [=] engine_name

This statement drops the log file group named logfile_group. The log file group must already exist or an error results. (For information on creating log file groups, see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax”.)

Important

Before dropping a log file group, you must drop all tablespaces that use that log file group for UNDO logging.

The required ENGINE clause provides the name of the storage engine used by the log file group to be dropped. Currently, the only permitted values for engine_name are NDB and NDBCLUSTER.

DROP LOGFILE GROUP is useful only with Disk Data storage for NDB Cluster. See Section 21.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”.

13.1.27 DROP PROCEDURE and DROP FUNCTION Syntax

DROP {PROCEDURE | FUNCTION} [IF EXISTS] sp_name

This statement is used to drop a stored procedure or function. That is, the specified routine is removed from the server. You must have the ALTER ROUTINE privilege for the routine. (If the automatic_sp_privileges system variable is enabled, that privilege and EXECUTE are granted automatically to the routine creator when the routine is created and dropped from the creator when the routine is dropped. See Section 23.2.2, “Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges”.)

The IF EXISTS clause is a MySQL extension. It prevents an error from occurring if the procedure or function does not exist. A warning is produced that can be viewed with SHOW WARNINGS.

DROP FUNCTION is also used to drop user-defined functions (see Section 13.7.3.2, “DROP FUNCTION Syntax”).

13.1.28 DROP SERVER Syntax

DROP SERVER [ IF EXISTS ] server_name

Drops the server definition for the server named server_name. The corresponding row in the mysql.servers table is deleted. This statement requires the SUPER privilege.

Dropping a server for a table does not affect any FEDERATED tables that used this connection information when they were created. See Section 13.1.17, “CREATE SERVER Syntax”.

DROP SERVER causes an implicit commit. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

DROP SERVER is not written to the binary log, regardless of the logging format that is in use.

13.1.29 DROP TABLE Syntax

DROP [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF EXISTS]
    tbl_name [, tbl_name] ...
    [RESTRICT | CASCADE]

DROP TABLE removes one or more tables. You must have the DROP privilege for each table.

Be careful with this statement! It removes the table definition and all table data. For a partitioned table, it permanently removes the table definition, all its partitions, and all data stored in those partitions. It also removes partition definitions associated with the dropped table.

Note

As of MySQL 5.7.6, partition definition (.par) files are no longer created for partitioned InnoDB tables. Instead, partition definitions are stored in the InnoDB internal data dictionary. Partition definition (.par) files continue to be used for partitioned MyISAM tables.

DROP TABLE causes an implicit commit, except when used with the TEMPORARY keyword. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

Important

When a table is dropped, privileges granted specifically for the table are not automatically dropped. They must be dropped manually. See Section 13.7.1.4, “GRANT Syntax”.

If any tables named in the argument list do not exist, the statement returns an error indicating by name which nonexisting tables it was unable to drop, but also drops all tables in the list that do exist.

Use IF EXISTS to prevent an error from occurring for tables that do not exist. Instead of an error, a NOTE is generated for each nonexistent table; these notes can be displayed with SHOW WARNINGS. See Section 13.7.5.40, “SHOW WARNINGS Syntax”.

IF EXISTS can also be useful for dropping tables in unusual circumstances under which there is an .frm file but no table managed by the storage engine. (For example, if an abnormal server exit occurs after removal of the table from the storage engine but before .frm file removal.)

The TEMPORARY keyword has the following effects:

  • The statement drops only TEMPORARY tables.

  • The statement does not cause an implicit commit.

  • No access rights are checked. A TEMPORARY table is visible only with the session that created it, so no check is necessary.

Using TEMPORARY is a good way to ensure that you do not accidentally drop a non-TEMPORARY table.

The RESTRICT and CASCADE keywords do nothing. They are permitted to make porting easier from other database systems.

DROP TABLE is not supported with all innodb_force_recovery settings. See Section 14.21.2, “Forcing InnoDB Recovery”.

13.1.30 DROP TABLESPACE Syntax

DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name
    [ENGINE [=] engine_name]

This statement drops a tablespace that was previously created using CREATE TABLESPACE. It is supported with all MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 releases, and with InnoDB in the standard MySQL Server as well, beginning with MySQL 5.7.6.

ENGINE sets the storage engine that uses the tablespace, where engine_name is the name of the storage engine. Currently, the values InnoDB and NDB are supported. If not set, the value of default_storage_engine is used. If it is not the same as the storage engine used to create the tablespace, the DROP TABLESPACE statement fails.

For an InnoDB tablespace, all tables must be dropped from the tablespace prior to a DROP TABLESPACE operation. If the tablespace is not empty, DROP TABLESPACE returns an error.

As with the InnoDB system tablespace, truncating or dropping InnoDB tables stored in a general tablespace creates free space in the tablespace .ibd data file, which can only be used for new InnoDB data. Space is not released back to the operating system by such operations as it is for file-per-table tablespaces.

An NDB tablespace to be dropped must not contain any data files; in other words, before you can drop an NDB tablespace, you must first drop each of its data files using ALTER TABLESPACE ... DROP DATAFILE.

Notes

  • Tablespaces are not deleted automatically. A tablespace must be dropped explicitly using DROP TABLESPACE. DROP DATABASE has no effect in this regard, even if the operation drops all tables belonging to the tablespace.

  • A DROP DATABASE operation can drop tables that belong to a general tablespace but it cannot drop the tablespace, even if the operation drops all tables that belong to the tablespace. The tablespace must be dropped explicitly using DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name.

  • Similar to the system tablespace, truncating or dropping tables stored in a general tablespace creates free space internally in the general tablespace .ibd data file which can only be used for new InnoDB data. Space is not released back to the operating system as it is for file-per-table tablespaces.

InnoDB Example

This example demonstrates how to drop an InnoDB general tablespace. The general tablespace ts1 is created with a single table. Before dropping the tablespace, the table must be dropped.

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE `ts1`
    ->     ADD DATAFILE 'ts1.ibd'
    ->     ENGINE=INNODB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY)
    ->     TABLESPACE ts10
    ->     ENGINE=INNODB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> DROP TABLE t1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> DROP TABLESPACE ts1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

NDB Example

This example shows how to drop an NDB tablespace myts having a data file named mydata-1.dat after first creating the tablespace, and assumes the existence of a log file group named mylg (see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax”).

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE myts
    ->     ADD DATAFILE 'mydata-1.dat'
    ->     USE LOGFILE GROUP mylg
    ->     ENGINE=NDB;

You must remove all data files from the tablespace using ALTER TABLESPACE, as shown here, before it can be dropped:

mysql> ALTER TABLESPACE myts
    ->     DROP DATAFILE 'mydata-1.dat'
    ->     ENGINE=NDB;

mysql> DROP TABLESPACE myts;

13.1.31 DROP TRIGGER Syntax

DROP TRIGGER [IF EXISTS] [schema_name.]trigger_name

This statement drops a trigger. The schema (database) name is optional. If the schema is omitted, the trigger is dropped from the default schema. DROP TRIGGER requires the TRIGGER privilege for the table associated with the trigger.

Use IF EXISTS to prevent an error from occurring for a trigger that does not exist. A NOTE is generated for a nonexistent trigger when using IF EXISTS. See Section 13.7.5.40, “SHOW WARNINGS Syntax”.

Triggers for a table are also dropped if you drop the table.

13.1.32 DROP VIEW Syntax

DROP VIEW [IF EXISTS]
    view_name [, view_name] ...
    [RESTRICT | CASCADE]

DROP VIEW removes one or more views. You must have the DROP privilege for each view.

If any views named in the argument list do not exist, the statement returns an error indicating by name which nonexisting views it was unable to drop, but also drops all views in the list that do exist.

The IF EXISTS clause prevents an error from occurring for views that don't exist. When this clause is given, a NOTE is generated for each nonexistent view. See Section 13.7.5.40, “SHOW WARNINGS Syntax”.

RESTRICT and CASCADE, if given, are parsed and ignored.

13.1.33 RENAME TABLE Syntax

RENAME TABLE
    tbl_name TO new_tbl_name
    [, tbl_name2 TO new_tbl_name2] ...

RENAME TABLE renames one or more tables. You must have ALTER and DROP privileges for the original table, and CREATE and INSERT privileges for the new table.

For example, to rename a table named old_table to to new_table, use this statement:

RENAME TABLE old_table TO new_table;

That statement is equivalent to the following ALTER TABLE statement:

ALTER TABLE old_table RENAME new_table;

RENAME TABLE, unlike ALTER TABLE, can rename multiple tables within a single statement:

RENAME TABLE old_table1 TO new_table1,
             old_table2 TO new_table2,
             old_table3 TO new_table3;

Renaming operations are performed left to right. Thus, to swap two table names, do this (assuming that a table with the intermediary name tmp_table does not already exist):

RENAME TABLE old_table TO tmp_table,
             new_table TO old_table,
             tmp_table TO new_table;

When you execute RENAME TABLE, you cannot have any locked tables or active transactions. With that condition satisfied, the rename operation is done atomically; no other session can access any of the tables while the rename is in progress.

If any errors occur during a RENAME TABLE, the statement fails and no changes are made.

You can use RENAME TABLE to move a table from one database to another:

RENAME TABLE current_db.tbl_name TO other_db.tbl_name;

Using this method to move all tables from one database to a different one in effect renames the database (an operation for which MySQL has no single statement), except that the original database continues to exist, albeit with no tables.

Like RENAME TABLE, ALTER TABLE ... RENAME can also be used to move a table to a different database. Regardless of the statement used, if the rename operation would move the table to a database located on a different file system, the success of the outcome is platform specific and depends on the underlying operating system calls used to move the table files.

If a table has triggers, attempts to rename the table into a different database fail with a Trigger in wrong schema error.

RENAME TABLE does not work for TEMPORARY tables. However, you can use ALTER TABLE to rename TEMPORARY tables.

RENAME TABLE works for views, except that views cannot be renamed into a different database.

Any privileges granted specifically for a renamed table or view are not migrated to the new name. They must be changed manually.

RENAME TABLE changes internally generated foreign key constraint names and user-defined foreign key constraint names that contain the string tbl_name_ibfk_ to reflect the new table name. InnoDB interprets foreign key constraint names that contain the string tbl_name_ibfk_ as internally generated names.

Foreign key constraint names that point to the renamed table are automatically updated unless there is a conflict, in which case, the statement fails with an error. A conflict occurs if the renamed constraint name already exists. In such cases, you must drop and re-create the foreign keys in order for them to function properly.

13.1.34 TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax

TRUNCATE [TABLE] tbl_name

TRUNCATE TABLE empties a table completely. It requires the DROP privilege.

Logically, TRUNCATE TABLE is similar to a DELETE statement that deletes all rows, or a sequence of DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements. To achieve high performance, it bypasses the DML method of deleting data. Thus, it cannot be rolled back, it does not cause ON DELETE triggers to fire, and it cannot be performed for InnoDB tables with parent-child foreign key relationships.

Although TRUNCATE TABLE is similar to DELETE, it is classified as a DDL statement rather than a DML statement. It differs from DELETE in the following ways:

  • Truncate operations drop and re-create the table, which is much faster than deleting rows one by one, particularly for large tables.

  • Truncate operations cause an implicit commit, and so cannot be rolled back. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

  • Truncation operations cannot be performed if the session holds an active table lock.

  • TRUNCATE TABLE fails for an InnoDB table or NDB table if there are any FOREIGN KEY constraints from other tables that reference the table. Foreign key constraints between columns of the same table are permitted.

  • Truncation operations do not return a meaningful value for the number of deleted rows. The usual result is 0 rows affected, which should be interpreted as no information.

  • As long as the table format file tbl_name.frm is valid, the table can be re-created as an empty table with TRUNCATE TABLE, even if the data or index files have become corrupted.

  • Any AUTO_INCREMENT value is reset to its start value. This is true even for MyISAM and InnoDB, which normally do not reuse sequence values.

  • When used with partitioned tables, TRUNCATE TABLE preserves the partitioning; that is, the data and index files are dropped and re-created, while the partition definitions (.par) file is unaffected.

    Note

    As of MySQL 5.7.6, partition definition (.par) files are no longer created. Instead, partition definitions are stored in the internal data dictionary.

  • The TRUNCATE TABLE statement does not invoke ON DELETE triggers.

TRUNCATE TABLE for a table closes all handlers for the table that were opened with HANDLER OPEN.

TRUNCATE TABLE is treated for purposes of binary logging and replication as DROP TABLE followed by CREATE TABLE—that is, as DDL rather than DML. This is due to the fact that, when using InnoDB and other transactional storage engines where the transaction isolation level does not permit statement-based logging (READ COMMITTED or READ UNCOMMITTED), the statement was not logged and replicated when using STATEMENT or MIXED logging mode. (Bug #36763) However, it is still applied on replication slaves using InnoDB in the manner described previously.

On a system with a large InnoDB buffer pool and innodb_adaptive_hash_index enabled, TRUNCATE TABLE operations may cause a temporary drop in system performance due to an LRU scan that occurs when removing an InnoDB table's adaptive hash index entries. The problem was addressed for DROP TABLE in MySQL 5.5.23 (Bug #13704145, Bug #64284) but remains a known issue for TRUNCATE TABLE (Bug #68184).

TRUNCATE TABLE can be used with Performance Schema summary tables, but the effect is to reset the summary columns to 0 or NULL, not to remove rows. See Section 25.11.15, “Performance Schema Summary Tables”.

13.2 Data Manipulation Statements

13.2.1 CALL Syntax

CALL sp_name([parameter[,...]])
CALL sp_name[()]

The CALL statement invokes a stored procedure that was defined previously with CREATE PROCEDURE.

Stored procedures that take no arguments can be invoked without parentheses. That is, CALL p() and CALL p are equivalent.

CALL can pass back values to its caller using parameters that are declared as OUT or INOUT parameters. When the procedure returns, a client program can also obtain the number of rows affected for the final statement executed within the routine: At the SQL level, call the ROW_COUNT() function; from the C API, call the mysql_affected_rows() function.

To get back a value from a procedure using an OUT or INOUT parameter, pass the parameter by means of a user variable, and then check the value of the variable after the procedure returns. (If you are calling the procedure from within another stored procedure or function, you can also pass a routine parameter or local routine variable as an IN or INOUT parameter.) For an INOUT parameter, initialize its value before passing it to the procedure. The following procedure has an OUT parameter that the procedure sets to the current server version, and an INOUT value that the procedure increments by one from its current value:

CREATE PROCEDURE p (OUT ver_param VARCHAR(25), INOUT incr_param INT)
BEGIN
  # Set value of OUT parameter
  SELECT VERSION() INTO ver_param;
  # Increment value of INOUT parameter
  SET incr_param = incr_param + 1;
END;

Before calling the procedure, initialize the variable to be passed as the INOUT parameter. After calling the procedure, the values of the two variables will have been set or modified:

mysql> SET @increment = 10;
mysql> CALL p(@version, @increment);
mysql> SELECT @version, @increment;
+------------------+------------+
| @version         | @increment |
+------------------+------------+
| 5.7.20-debug-log |         11 |
+------------------+------------+

In prepared CALL statements used with PREPARE and EXECUTE, placeholders can be used for IN parameters, OUT, and INOUT parameters. These types of parameters can be used as follows:

mysql> SET @increment = 10;
mysql> PREPARE s FROM 'CALL p(?, ?)';
mysql> EXECUTE s USING @version, @increment;
mysql> SELECT @version, @increment;
+------------------+------------+
| @version         | @increment |
+------------------+------------+
| 5.7.20-debug-log |         11 |
+------------------+------------+

To write C programs that use the CALL SQL statement to execute stored procedures that produce result sets, the CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS flag must be enabled. This is because each CALL returns a result to indicate the call status, in addition to any result sets that might be returned by statements executed within the procedure. CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS must also be enabled if CALL is used to execute any stored procedure that contains prepared statements. It cannot be determined when such a procedure is loaded whether those statements will produce result sets, so it is necessary to assume that they will.

CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS can be enabled when you call mysql_real_connect(), either explicitly by passing the CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS flag itself, or implicitly by passing CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS (which also enables CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS). CLIENT_MULTI_RESULTS is enabled by default.

To process the result of a CALL statement executed using mysql_query() or mysql_real_query(), use a loop that calls mysql_next_result() to determine whether there are more results. For an example, see Section 27.8.16, “C API Multiple Statement Execution Support”.

C programs can use the prepared-statement interface to execute CALL statements and access OUT and INOUT parameters. This is done by processing the result of a CALL statement using a loop that calls mysql_stmt_next_result() to determine whether there are more results. For an example, see Section 27.8.18, “C API Prepared CALL Statement Support”. Languages that provide a MySQL interface can use prepared CALL statements to directly retrieve OUT and INOUT procedure parameters.

Metadata changes to objects referred to by stored programs are detected and cause automatic reparsing of the affected statements when the program is next executed. For more information, see Section 8.10.4, “Caching of Prepared Statements and Stored Programs”.

13.2.2 DELETE Syntax

DELETE is a DML statement that removes rows from a table.

Single-Table Syntax

DELETE [LOW_PRIORITY] [QUICK] [IGNORE] FROM tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [WHERE where_condition]
    [ORDER BY ...]
    [LIMIT row_count]

The DELETE statement deletes rows from tbl_name and returns the number of deleted rows. To check the number of deleted rows, call the ROW_COUNT() function described in Section 12.14, “Information Functions”.

Main Clauses

The conditions in the optional WHERE clause identify which rows to delete. With no WHERE clause, all rows are deleted.

where_condition is an expression that evaluates to true for each row to be deleted. It is specified as described in Section 13.2.9, “SELECT Syntax”.

If the ORDER BY clause is specified, the rows are deleted in the order that is specified. The LIMIT clause places a limit on the number of rows that can be deleted. These clauses apply to single-table deletes, but not multi-table deletes.

Multiple-Table Syntax

DELETE [LOW_PRIORITY] [QUICK] [IGNORE]
    tbl_name[.*] [, tbl_name[.*]] ...
    FROM table_references
    [WHERE where_condition]

DELETE [LOW_PRIORITY] [QUICK] [IGNORE]
    FROM tbl_name[.*] [, tbl_name[.*]] ...
    USING table_references
    [WHERE where_condition]

Privileges

You need the DELETE privilege on a table to delete rows from it. You need only the SELECT privilege for any columns that are only read, such as those named in the WHERE clause.

Performance

When you do not need to know the number of deleted rows, the TRUNCATE TABLE statement is a faster way to empty a table than a DELETE statement with no WHERE clause. Unlike DELETE, TRUNCATE TABLE cannot be used within a transaction or if you have a lock on the table. See Section 13.1.34, “TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax” and Section 13.3.5, “LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax”.

The speed of delete operations may also be affected by factors discussed in Section 8.2.4.3, “Optimizing DELETE Statements”.

To ensure that a given DELETE statement does not take too much time, the MySQL-specific LIMIT row_count clause for DELETE specifies the maximum number of rows to be deleted. If the number of rows to delete is larger than the limit, repeat the DELETE statement until the number of affected rows is less than the LIMIT value.

Subqueries

You cannot delete from a table and select from the same table in a subquery.

Partitioned Tables

DELETE supports explicit partition selection using the PARTITION option, which takes a list of the comma-separated names of one or more partitions or subpartitions (or both) from which to select rows to be dropped. Partitions not included in the list are ignored. Given a partitioned table t with a partition named p0, executing the statement DELETE FROM t PARTITION (p0) has the same effect on the table as executing ALTER TABLE t TRUNCATE PARTITION (p0); in both cases, all rows in partition p0 are dropped.

PARTITION can be used along with a WHERE condition, in which case the condition is tested only on rows in the listed partitions. For example, DELETE FROM t PARTITION (p0) WHERE c < 5 deletes rows only from partition p0 for which the condition c < 5 is true; rows in any other partitions are not checked and thus not affected by the DELETE.

The PARTITION option can also be used in multiple-table DELETE statements. You can use up to one such option per table named in the FROM option.

For more information and examples, see Section 22.5, “Partition Selection”.

Auto-Increment Columns

If you delete the row containing the maximum value for an AUTO_INCREMENT column, the value is not reused for a MyISAM or InnoDB table. If you delete all rows in the table with DELETE FROM tbl_name (without a WHERE clause) in autocommit mode, the sequence starts over for all storage engines except InnoDB and MyISAM. There are some exceptions to this behavior for InnoDB tables, as discussed in Section 14.8.1.5, “AUTO_INCREMENT Handling in InnoDB”.

For MyISAM tables, you can specify an AUTO_INCREMENT secondary column in a multiple-column key. In this case, reuse of values deleted from the top of the sequence occurs even for MyISAM tables. See Section 3.6.9, “Using AUTO_INCREMENT”.

Modifiers

The DELETE statement supports the following modifiers:

  • If you specify LOW_PRIORITY, the server delays execution of the DELETE until no other clients are reading from the table. This affects only storage engines that use only table-level locking (such as MyISAM, MEMORY, and MERGE).

  • For MyISAM tables, if you use the QUICK modifier, the storage engine does not merge index leaves during delete, which may speed up some kinds of delete operations.

  • The IGNORE modifier causes MySQL to ignore errors during the process of deleting rows. (Errors encountered during the parsing stage are processed in the usual manner.) Errors that are ignored due to the use of IGNORE are returned as warnings. For more information, see Comparison of the IGNORE Keyword and Strict SQL Mode.

Order of Deletion

If the DELETE statement includes an ORDER BY clause, rows are deleted in the order specified by the clause. This is useful primarily in conjunction with LIMIT. For example, the following statement finds rows matching the WHERE clause, sorts them by timestamp_column, and deletes the first (oldest) one:

DELETE FROM somelog WHERE user = 'jcole'
ORDER BY timestamp_column LIMIT 1;

ORDER BY also helps to delete rows in an order required to avoid referential integrity violations.

InnoDB Tables

If you are deleting many rows from a large table, you may exceed the lock table size for an InnoDB table. To avoid this problem, or simply to minimize the time that the table remains locked, the following strategy (which does not use DELETE at all) might be helpful:

  1. Select the rows not to be deleted into an empty table that has the same structure as the original table:

    INSERT INTO t_copy SELECT * FROM t WHERE ... ;
    
  2. Use RENAME TABLE to atomically move the original table out of the way and rename the copy to the original name:

    RENAME TABLE t TO t_old, t_copy TO t;
    
  3. Drop the original table:

    DROP TABLE t_old;
    

No other sessions can access the tables involved while RENAME TABLE executes, so the rename operation is not subject to concurrency problems. See Section 13.1.33, “RENAME TABLE Syntax”.

MyISAM Tables

In MyISAM tables, deleted rows are maintained in a linked list and subsequent INSERT operations reuse old row positions. To reclaim unused space and reduce file sizes, use the OPTIMIZE TABLE statement or the myisamchk utility to reorganize tables. OPTIMIZE TABLE is easier to use, but myisamchk is faster. See Section 13.7.2.4, “OPTIMIZE TABLE Syntax”, and Section 4.6.3, “myisamchk — MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility”.

The QUICK modifier affects whether index leaves are merged for delete operations. DELETE QUICK is most useful for applications where index values for deleted rows are replaced by similar index values from rows inserted later. In this case, the holes left by deleted values are reused.

DELETE QUICK is not useful when deleted values lead to underfilled index blocks spanning a range of index values for which new inserts occur again. In this case, use of QUICK can lead to wasted space in the index that remains unreclaimed. Here is an example of such a scenario:

  1. Create a table that contains an indexed AUTO_INCREMENT column.

  2. Insert many rows into the table. Each insert results in an index value that is added to the high end of the index.

  3. Delete a block of rows at the low end of the column range using DELETE QUICK.

In this scenario, the index blocks associated with the deleted index values become underfilled but are not merged with other index blocks due to the use of QUICK. They remain underfilled when new inserts occur, because new rows do not have index values in the deleted range. Furthermore, they remain underfilled even if you later use DELETE without QUICK, unless some of the deleted index values happen to lie in index blocks within or adjacent to the underfilled blocks. To reclaim unused index space under these circumstances, use OPTIMIZE TABLE.

If you are going to delete many rows from a table, it might be faster to use DELETE QUICK followed by OPTIMIZE TABLE. This rebuilds the index rather than performing many index block merge operations.

Multi-Table Deletes

You can specify multiple tables in a DELETE statement to delete rows from one or more tables depending on the condition in the WHERE clause. You cannot use ORDER BY or LIMIT in a multiple-table DELETE. The table_references clause lists the tables involved in the join, as described in Section 13.2.9.2, “JOIN Syntax”.

For the first multiple-table syntax, only matching rows from the tables listed before the FROM clause are deleted. For the second multiple-table syntax, only matching rows from the tables listed in the FROM clause (before the USING clause) are deleted. The effect is that you can delete rows from many tables at the same time and have additional tables that are used only for searching:

DELETE t1, t2 FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 INNER JOIN t3
WHERE t1.id=t2.id AND t2.id=t3.id;

Or:

DELETE FROM t1, t2 USING t1 INNER JOIN t2 INNER JOIN t3
WHERE t1.id=t2.id AND t2.id=t3.id;

These statements use all three tables when searching for rows to delete, but delete matching rows only from tables t1 and t2.

The preceding examples use INNER JOIN, but multiple-table DELETE statements can use other types of join permitted in SELECT statements, such as LEFT JOIN. For example, to delete rows that exist in t1 that have no match in t2, use a LEFT JOIN:

DELETE t1 FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON t1.id=t2.id WHERE t2.id IS NULL;

The syntax permits .* after each tbl_name for compatibility with Access.

If you use a multiple-table DELETE statement involving InnoDB tables for which there are foreign key constraints, the MySQL optimizer might process tables in an order that differs from that of their parent/child relationship. In this case, the statement fails and rolls back. Instead, you should delete from a single table and rely on the ON DELETE capabilities that InnoDB provides to cause the other tables to be modified accordingly.

Note

If you declare an alias for a table, you must use the alias when referring to the table:

DELETE t1 FROM test AS t1, test2 WHERE ...

Table aliases in a multiple-table DELETE should be declared only in the table_references part of the statement. Elsewhere, alias references are permitted but not alias declarations.

Correct:

DELETE a1, a2 FROM t1 AS a1 INNER JOIN t2 AS a2
WHERE a1.id=a2.id;

DELETE FROM a1, a2 USING t1 AS a1 INNER JOIN t2 AS a2
WHERE a1.id=a2.id;

Incorrect:

DELETE t1 AS a1, t2 AS a2 FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2
WHERE a1.id=a2.id;

DELETE FROM t1 AS a1, t2 AS a2 USING t1 INNER JOIN t2
WHERE a1.id=a2.id;

13.2.3 DO Syntax

DO expr [, expr] ...

DO executes the expressions but does not return any results. In most respects, DO is shorthand for SELECT expr, ..., but has the advantage that it is slightly faster when you do not care about the result.

DO is useful primarily with functions that have side effects, such as RELEASE_LOCK().

Example: This SELECT statement pauses, but also produces a result set:

mysql> SELECT SLEEP(5);
+----------+
| SLEEP(5) |
+----------+
|        0 |
+----------+
1 row in set (5.02 sec)

DO, on the other hand, pauses without producing a result set.:

mysql> DO SLEEP(5);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (4.99 sec)

This could be useful, for example in a stored function or trigger, which prohibit statements that produce result sets.

DO only executes expressions. It cannot be used in all cases where SELECT can be used. For example, DO id FROM t1 is invalid because it references a table.

13.2.4 HANDLER Syntax

HANDLER tbl_name OPEN [ [AS] alias]

HANDLER tbl_name READ index_name { = | <= | >= | < | > } (value1,value2,...)
    [ WHERE where_condition ] [LIMIT ... ]
HANDLER tbl_name READ index_name { FIRST | NEXT | PREV | LAST }
    [ WHERE where_condition ] [LIMIT ... ]
HANDLER tbl_name READ { FIRST | NEXT }
    [ WHERE where_condition ] [LIMIT ... ]

HANDLER tbl_name CLOSE

The HANDLER statement provides direct access to table storage engine interfaces. It is available for InnoDB and MyISAM tables.

The HANDLER ... OPEN statement opens a table, making it accessible using subsequent HANDLER ... READ statements. This table object is not shared by other sessions and is not closed until the session calls HANDLER ... CLOSE or the session terminates.

If you open the table using an alias, further references to the open table with other HANDLER statements must use the alias rather than the table name. If you do not use an alias, but open the table using a table name qualified by the database name, further references must use the unqualified table name. For example, for a table opened using mydb.mytable, further references must use mytable.

The first HANDLER ... READ syntax fetches a row where the index specified satisfies the given values and the WHERE condition is met. If you have a multiple-column index, specify the index column values as a comma-separated list. Either specify values for all the columns in the index, or specify values for a leftmost prefix of the index columns. Suppose that an index my_idx includes three columns named col_a, col_b, and col_c, in that order. The HANDLER statement can specify values for all three columns in the index, or for the columns in a leftmost prefix. For example:

HANDLER ... READ my_idx = (col_a_val,col_b_val,col_c_val) ...
HANDLER ... READ my_idx = (col_a_val,col_b_val) ...
HANDLER ... READ my_idx = (col_a_val) ...

To employ the HANDLER interface to refer to a table's PRIMARY KEY, use the quoted identifier `PRIMARY`:

HANDLER tbl_name READ `PRIMARY` ...

The second HANDLER ... READ syntax fetches a row from the table in index order that matches the WHERE condition.

The third HANDLER ... READ syntax fetches a row from the table in natural row order that matches the WHERE condition. It is faster than HANDLER tbl_name READ index_name when a full table scan is desired. Natural row order is the order in which rows are stored in a MyISAM table data file. This statement works for InnoDB tables as well, but there is no such concept because there is no separate data file.

Without a LIMIT clause, all forms of HANDLER ... READ fetch a single row if one is available. To return a specific number of rows, include a LIMIT clause. It has the same syntax as for the SELECT statement. See Section 13.2.9, “SELECT Syntax”.

HANDLER ... CLOSE closes a table that was opened with HANDLER ... OPEN.

There are several reasons to use the HANDLER interface instead of normal SELECT statements:

  • HANDLER is faster than SELECT:

    • A designated storage engine handler object is allocated for the HANDLER ... OPEN. The object is reused for subsequent HANDLER statements for that table; it need not be reinitialized for each one.

    • There is less parsing involved.

    • There is no optimizer or query-checking overhead.

    • The handler interface does not have to provide a consistent look of the data (for example, dirty reads are permitted), so the storage engine can use optimizations that SELECT does not normally permit.

  • HANDLER makes it easier to port to MySQL applications that use a low-level ISAM-like interface. (See Section 14.20, “InnoDB memcached Plugin” for an alternative way to adapt applications that use the key-value store paradigm.)

  • HANDLER enables you to traverse a database in a manner that is difficult (or even impossible) to accomplish with SELECT. The HANDLER interface is a more natural way to look at data when working with applications that provide an interactive user interface to the database.

HANDLER is a somewhat low-level statement. For example, it does not provide consistency. That is, HANDLER ... OPEN does not take a snapshot of the table, and does not lock the table. This means that after a HANDLER ... OPEN statement is issued, table data can be modified (by the current session or other sessions) and these modifications might be only partially visible to HANDLER ... NEXT or HANDLER ... PREV scans.

An open handler can be closed and marked for reopen, in which case the handler loses its position in the table. This occurs when both of the following circumstances are true:

  • Any session executes FLUSH TABLES or DDL statements on the handler's table.

  • The session in which the handler is open executes non-HANDLER statements that use tables.

TRUNCATE TABLE for a table closes all handlers for the table that were opened with HANDLER OPEN.

If a table is flushed with FLUSH TABLES tbl_name WITH READ LOCK was opened with HANDLER, the handler is implicitly flushed and loses its position.

13.2.5 INSERT Syntax

INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED | HIGH_PRIORITY] [IGNORE]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [(col_name [, col_name] ...)]
    {VALUES | VALUE} (value_list) [, (value_list)] ...
    [ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE assignment_list]

INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED | HIGH_PRIORITY] [IGNORE]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    SET assignment_list
    [ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE assignment_list]

INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | HIGH_PRIORITY] [IGNORE]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [(col_name [, col_name] ...)]
    SELECT ...
    [ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE assignment_list]

value:
    {expr | DEFAULT}

value_list:
    value [, value] ...

assignment:
    col_name = value

assignment_list:
    assignment [, assignment] ...

INSERT inserts new rows into an existing table. The INSERT ... VALUES and INSERT ... SET forms of the statement insert rows based on explicitly specified values. The INSERT ... SELECT form inserts rows selected from another table or tables. INSERT with an ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause enables existing rows to be updated if a row to be inserted would cause a duplicate value in a UNIQUE index or PRIMARY KEY.

For additional information about INSERT ... SELECT and INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE, see Section 13.2.5.1, “INSERT ... SELECT Syntax”, and Section 13.2.5.2, “INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE Syntax”.

In MySQL 5.7, the DELAYED keyword is accepted but ignored by the server. For the reasons for this, see Section 13.2.5.3, “INSERT DELAYED Syntax”,

Inserting into a table requires the INSERT privilege for the table. If the ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause is used and a duplicate key causes an UPDATE to be performed instead, the statement requires the UPDATE privilege for the columns to be updated. For columns that are read but not modified you need only the SELECT privilege (such as for a column referenced only on the right hand side of an col_name=expr assignment in an ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause).

When inserting into a partitioned table, you can control which partitions and subpartitions accept new rows. The PARTITION option takes a list of the comma-separated names of one or more partitions or subpartitions (or both) of the table. If any of the rows to be inserted by a given INSERT statement do not match one of the partitions listed, the INSERT statement fails with the error Found a row not matching the given partition set. For more information and examples, see Section 22.5, “Partition Selection”.

You can use REPLACE instead of INSERT to overwrite old rows. REPLACE is the counterpart to INSERT IGNORE in the treatment of new rows that contain unique key values that duplicate old rows: The new rows replace the old rows rather than being discarded. See Section 13.2.8, “REPLACE Syntax”.

tbl_name is the table into which rows should be inserted. Specify the columns for which the statement provides values as follows:

  • Provide a parenthesized list of comma-separated column names following the table name. In this case, a value for each named column must be provided by the VALUES list or the SELECT statement.

  • If you do not specify a list of column names for INSERT ... VALUES or INSERT ... SELECT, values for every column in the table must be provided by the VALUES list or the SELECT statement. If you do not know the order of the columns in the table, use DESCRIBE tbl_name to find out.

  • A SET clause indicates columns explicitly by name, together with the value to assign each one.

Column values can be given in several ways:

  • If strict SQL mode is not enabled, any column not explicitly given a value is set to its default (explicit or implicit) value. For example, if you specify a column list that does not name all the columns in the table, unnamed columns are set to their default values. Default value assignment is described in Section 11.7, “Data Type Default Values”. See also Section 1.8.3.3, “Constraints on Invalid Data”.

    If strict SQL mode is enabled, an INSERT statement generates an error if it does not specify an explicit value for every column that has no default value. See Section 5.1.8, “Server SQL Modes”.

  • If both the column list and the VALUES list are empty, INSERT creates a row with each column set to its default value:

    INSERT INTO tbl_name () VALUES();
    

    If strict mode is not enabled, MySQL uses the implicit default value for any column that has no explicitly defined default. If strict mode is enabled, an error occurs if any column has no default value.

  • Use the keyword DEFAULT to set a column explicitly to its default value. This makes it easier to write INSERT statements that assign values to all but a few columns, because it enables you to avoid writing an incomplete VALUES list that does not include a value for each column in the table. Otherwise, you must provide the list of column names corresponding to each value in the VALUES list.

  • If a generated column is inserted into explicitly, the only permitted value is DEFAULT. For information about generated columns, see Section 13.1.18.8, “CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns”.

  • In expressions, you can use DEFAULT(col_name) to produce the default value for column col_name.

  • Type conversion of an expression expr that provides a column value might occur if the expression data type does not match the column data type. Conversion of a given value can result in different inserted values depending on the column type. For example, inserting the string '1999.0e-2' into an INT, FLOAT, DECIMAL(10,6), or YEAR column inserts the value 1999, 19.9921, 19.992100, or 1999, respectively. The value stored in the INT and YEAR columns is 1999 because the string-to-number conversion looks only at as much of the initial part of the string as may be considered a valid integer or year. For the FLOAT and DECIMAL columns, the string-to-number conversion considers the entire string a valid numeric value.

  • An expression expr can refer to any column that was set earlier in a value list. For example, you can do this because the value for col2 refers to col1, which has previously been assigned:

    INSERT INTO tbl_name (col1,col2) VALUES(15,col1*2);
    

    But the following is not legal, because the value for col1 refers to col2, which is assigned after col1:

    INSERT INTO tbl_name (col1,col2) VALUES(col2*2,15);
    

    An exception occurs for columns that contain AUTO_INCREMENT values. Because AUTO_INCREMENT values are generated after other value assignments, any reference to an AUTO_INCREMENT column in the assignment returns a 0.

INSERT statements that use VALUES syntax can insert multiple rows. To do this, include multiple lists of comma-separated column values, with lists enclosed within parentheses and separated by commas. Example:

INSERT INTO tbl_name (a,b,c) VALUES(1,2,3),(4,5,6),(7,8,9);

Each values list must contain exactly as many values as are to be inserted per row. The following statement is invalid because it contains one list of nine values, rather than three lists of three values each:

INSERT INTO tbl_name (a,b,c) VALUES(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9);

VALUE is a synonym for VALUES in this context. Neither implies anything about the number of values lists, nor about the number of values per list. Either may be used whether there is a single values list or multiple lists, and regardless of the number of values per list.

The affected-rows value for an INSERT can be obtained using the ROW_COUNT() SQL function or the mysql_affected_rows() C API function. See Section 12.14, “Information Functions”, and Section 27.8.7.1, “mysql_affected_rows()”.

If you use an INSERT ... VALUES statement with multiple value lists or INSERT ... SELECT, the statement returns an information string in this format:

Records: N1 Duplicates: N2 Warnings: N3

If you are using the C API, the information string can be obtained by invoking the mysql_info() function. See Section 27.8.7.36, “mysql_info()”.

Records indicates the number of rows processed by the statement. (This is not necessarily the number of rows actually inserted because Duplicates can be nonzero.) Duplicates indicates the number of rows that could not be inserted because they would duplicate some existing unique index value. Warnings indicates the number of attempts to insert column values that were problematic in some way. Warnings can occur under any of the following conditions:

  • Inserting NULL into a column that has been declared NOT NULL. For multiple-row INSERT statements or INSERT INTO ... SELECT statements, the column is set to the implicit default value for the column data type. This is 0 for numeric types, the empty string ('') for string types, and the zero value for date and time types. INSERT INTO ... SELECT statements are handled the same way as multiple-row inserts because the server does not examine the result set from the SELECT to see whether it returns a single row. (For a single-row INSERT, no warning occurs when NULL is inserted into a NOT NULL column. Instead, the statement fails with an error.)

  • Setting a numeric column to a value that lies outside the column's range. The value is clipped to the closest endpoint of the range.

  • Assigning a value such as '10.34 a' to a numeric column. The trailing nonnumeric text is stripped off and the remaining numeric part is inserted. If the string value has no leading numeric part, the column is set to 0.

  • Inserting a string into a string column (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, or BLOB) that exceeds the column's maximum length. The value is truncated to the column's maximum length.

  • Inserting a value into a date or time column that is illegal for the data type. The column is set to the appropriate zero value for the type.

If INSERT inserts a row into a table that has an AUTO_INCREMENT column, you can find the value used for that column by using the LAST_INSERT_ID() SQL function or the mysql_insert_id() C API function.

Note

These two functions do not always behave identically. The behavior of INSERT statements with respect to AUTO_INCREMENT columns is discussed further in Section 12.14, “Information Functions”, and Section 27.8.7.38, “mysql_insert_id()”.

The INSERT statement supports the following modifiers:

  • If you use the LOW_PRIORITY modifier, execution of the INSERT is delayed until no other clients are reading from the table. This includes other clients that began reading while existing clients are reading, and while the INSERT LOW_PRIORITY statement is waiting. It is possible, therefore, for a client that issues an INSERT LOW_PRIORITY statement to wait for a very long time.

    LOW_PRIORITY affects only storage engines that use only table-level locking (such as MyISAM, MEMORY, and MERGE).

    Note

    LOW_PRIORITY should normally not be used with MyISAM tables because doing so disables concurrent inserts. See Section 8.11.3, “Concurrent Inserts”.

  • If you specify HIGH_PRIORITY, it overrides the effect of the --low-priority-updates option if the server was started with that option. It also causes concurrent inserts not to be used. See Section 8.11.3, “Concurrent Inserts”.

    HIGH_PRIORITY affects only storage engines that use only table-level locking (such as MyISAM, MEMORY, and MERGE).

  • If you use the IGNORE modifier, errors that occur while executing the INSERT statement are ignored. For example, without IGNORE, a row that duplicates an existing UNIQUE index or PRIMARY KEY value in the table causes a duplicate-key error and the statement is aborted. With IGNORE, the row is discarded and no error occurs. Ignored errors generate warnings instead.

    IGNORE has a similar effect on inserts into partitioned tables where no partition matching a given value is found. Without IGNORE, such INSERT statements are aborted with an error. When INSERT IGNORE is used, the insert operation fails silently for rows containing the unmatched value, but inserts rows that are matched. For an example, see Section 22.2.2, “LIST Partitioning”.

    Data conversions that would trigger errors abort the statement if IGNORE is not specified. With IGNORE, invalid values are adjusted to the closest values and inserted; warnings are produced but the statement does not abort. You can determine with the mysql_info() C API function how many rows were actually inserted into the table.

    For more information, see Comparison of the IGNORE Keyword and Strict SQL Mode.

  • If you specify ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE, and a row is inserted that would cause a duplicate value in a UNIQUE index or PRIMARY KEY, an UPDATE of the old row occurs. The affected-rows value per row is 1 if the row is inserted as a new row, 2 if an existing row is updated, and 0 if an existing row is set to its current values. If you specify the CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS flag to the mysql_real_connect() C API function when connecting to mysqld, the affected-rows value is 1 (not 0) if an existing row is set to its current values. See Section 13.2.5.2, “INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE Syntax”.

  • INSERT DELAYED was deprecated in MySQL 5.6, and is scheduled for eventual removal. In MySQL 5.7, the DELAYED modifier is accepted but ignored. Use INSERT (without DELAYED) instead. See Section 13.2.5.3, “INSERT DELAYED Syntax”.

An INSERT statement affecting a partitioned table using a storage engine such as MyISAM that employs table-level locks locks only those partitions into which rows are actually inserted. (For storage engines such as InnoDB that employ row-level locking, no locking of partitions takes place.) For more information, see Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

13.2.5.1 INSERT ... SELECT Syntax

INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | HIGH_PRIORITY] [IGNORE]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [(col_name [, col_name] ...)]
    SELECT ...
    [ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE assignment_list]

value:
    {expr | DEFAULT}

assignment:
    col_name = value

assignment_list:
    assignment [, assignment] ...

With INSERT ... SELECT, you can quickly insert many rows into a table from the result of a SELECT statement, which can select from one or many tables. For example:

INSERT INTO tbl_temp2 (fld_id)
  SELECT tbl_temp1.fld_order_id
  FROM tbl_temp1 WHERE tbl_temp1.fld_order_id > 100;

The following conditions hold for INSERT ... SELECT statements:

  • Specify IGNORE to ignore rows that would cause duplicate-key violations.

  • The target table of the INSERT statement may appear in the FROM clause of the SELECT part of the query. However, you cannot insert into a table and select from the same table in a subquery.

    When selecting from and inserting into the same table, MySQL creates an internal temporary table to hold the rows from the SELECT and then inserts those rows into the target table. However, you cannot use INSERT INTO t ... SELECT ... FROM t when t is a TEMPORARY table, because TEMPORARY tables cannot be referred to twice in the same statement. See Section 8.4.4, “Internal Temporary Table Use in MySQL”, and Section B.5.6.2, “TEMPORARY Table Problems”.

  • AUTO_INCREMENT columns work as usual.

  • To ensure that the binary log can be used to re-create the original tables, MySQL does not permit concurrent inserts for INSERT ... SELECT statements (see Section 8.11.3, “Concurrent Inserts”).

  • To avoid ambiguous column reference problems when the SELECT and the INSERT refer to the same table, provide a unique alias for each table used in the SELECT part, and qualify column names in that part with the appropriate alias.

You can explicitly select which partitions or subpartitions (or both) of the source or target table (or both) are to be used with a PARTITION option following the name of the table. When PARTITION is used with the name of the source table in the SELECT portion of the statement, rows are selected only from the partitions or subpartitions named in its partition list. When PARTITION is used with the name of the target table for the INSERT portion of the statement, it must be possible to insert all rows selected into the partitions or subpartitions named in the partition list following the option. Otherwise, the INSERT ... SELECT statement fails. For more information and examples, see Section 22.5, “Partition Selection”.

For INSERT ... SELECT statements, see Section 13.2.5.2, “INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE Syntax” for conditions under which the SELECT columns can be referred to in an ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause.

The order in which a SELECT statement with no ORDER BY clause returns rows is indeterminate. This means that, when using replication, there is no guarantee that such a SELECT returns rows in the same order on the master and the slave, which can lead to inconsistencies between them. To prevent this from occurring, always write INSERT ... SELECT statements that are to be replicated using an ORDER BY clause that produces the same row order on the master and the slave. See also Section 16.4.1.17, “Replication and LIMIT”.

Due to this issue, INSERT ... SELECT ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE and INSERT IGNORE ... SELECT statements are flagged as unsafe for statement-based replication. Such statements produce a warning in the error log when using statement-based mode and are written to the binary log using the row-based format when using MIXED mode. (Bug #11758262, Bug #50439)

See also Section 16.2.1.1, “Advantages and Disadvantages of Statement-Based and Row-Based Replication”.

An INSERT ... SELECT statement affecting partitioned tables using a storage engine such as MyISAM that employs table-level locks locks all partitions of the target table; however, only those partitions that are actually read from the source table are locked. (This does not occur with tables using storage engines such as InnoDB that employ row-level locking.) For more information, see Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

13.2.5.2 INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE Syntax

If you specify an ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause and a row to be inserted would cause a duplicate value in a UNIQUE index or PRIMARY KEY, an UPDATE of the old row occurs. For example, if column a is declared as UNIQUE and contains the value 1, the following two statements have similar effect:

INSERT INTO t1 (a,b,c) VALUES (1,2,3)
  ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE c=c+1;

UPDATE t1 SET c=c+1 WHERE a=1;

(The effects are not identical for an InnoDB table where a is an auto-increment column. With an auto-increment column, an INSERT statement increases the auto-increment value but UPDATE does not.)

If column b is also unique, the INSERT is equivalent to this UPDATE statement instead:

UPDATE t1 SET c=c+1 WHERE a=1 OR b=2 LIMIT 1;

If a=1 OR b=2 matches several rows, only one row is updated. In general, you should try to avoid using an ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause on tables with multiple unique indexes.

With ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE, the affected-rows value per row is 1 if the row is inserted as a new row, 2 if an existing row is updated, and 0 if an existing row is set to its current values. If you specify the CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS flag to the mysql_real_connect() C API function when connecting to mysqld, the affected-rows value is 1 (not 0) if an existing row is set to its current values.

If a table contains an AUTO_INCREMENT column and INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE inserts or updates a row, the LAST_INSERT_ID() function returns the AUTO_INCREMENT value.

The ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause can contain multiple column assignments, separated by commas.

In assignment value expressions in the ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause, you can use the VALUES(col_name) function to refer to column values from the INSERT portion of the INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statement. In other words, VALUES(col_name) in the ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause refers to the value of col_name that would be inserted, had no duplicate-key conflict occurred. This function is especially useful in multiple-row inserts. The VALUES() function is meaningful only in the ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause or INSERT statements and returns NULL otherwise. Example:

INSERT INTO t1 (a,b,c) VALUES (1,2,3),(4,5,6)
  ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE c=VALUES(a)+VALUES(b);

That statement is identical to the following two statements:

INSERT INTO t1 (a,b,c) VALUES (1,2,3)
  ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE c=3;
INSERT INTO t1 (a,b,c) VALUES (4,5,6)
  ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE c=9;

For INSERT ... SELECT statements, these rules apply regarding acceptable forms of SELECT query expressions that you can refer to in an ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE clause:

  • References to columns from queries on a single table, which may be a derived table.

  • References to columns from queries on a join over multiple tables.

  • References to columns from DISTINCT queries.

  • References to columns in other tables, as long as the SELECT does not use GROUP BY. One side effect is that you must qualify references to nonunique column names.

References to columns from a UNION do not work reliably. To work around this restriction, rewrite the UNION as a derived table so that its rows can be treated as a single-table result set. For example, this statement can produce incorrect results:

INSERT INTO t1 (a, b)
  SELECT c, d FROM t2
  UNION
  SELECT e, f FROM t3
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE b = b + c;

Instead, use an equivalent statement that rewrites the UNION as a derived table:

INSERT INTO t1 (a, b)
SELECT * FROM
  (SELECT c, d FROM t2
   UNION
   SELECT e, f FROM t3) AS dt
ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE b = b + c;

The technique of rewriting a query as a derived table also enables references to columns from GROUP BY queries.

Because the results of INSERT ... SELECT statements depend on the ordering of rows from the SELECT and this order cannot always be guaranteed, it is possible when logging INSERT ... SELECT ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statements for the master and the slave to diverge. Thus, INSERT ... SELECT ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statements are flagged as unsafe for statement-based replication. Such statements produce a warning in the error log when using statement-based mode and are written to the binary log using the row-based format when using MIXED mode. An INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statement against a table having more than one unique or primary key is also marked as unsafe. (Bug #11765650, Bug #58637)

See also Section 16.2.1.1, “Advantages and Disadvantages of Statement-Based and Row-Based Replication”.

An INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE on a partitioned table using a storage engine such as MyISAM that employs table-level locks locks any partitions of the table in which a partitioning key column is updated. (This does not occur with tables using storage engines such as InnoDB that employ row-level locking.) For more information, see Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

13.2.5.3 INSERT DELAYED Syntax

INSERT DELAYED ...

The DELAYED option for the INSERT statement is a MySQL extension to standard SQL. In previous versions of MySQL, it can be used for certain kinds of tables (such as MyISAM), such that when a client uses INSERT DELAYED, it gets an okay from the server at once, and the row is queued to be inserted when the table is not in use by any other thread.

DELAYED inserts and replaces were deprecated in MySQL 5.6. In MySQL 5.7, DELAYED is not supported. The server recognizes but ignores the DELAYED keyword, handles the insert as a nondelayed insert, and generates an ER_WARN_LEGACY_SYNTAX_CONVERTED warning (INSERT DELAYED is no longer supported. The statement was converted to INSERT). The DELAYED keyword is scheduled for removal in a future release.

13.2.6 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax

LOAD DATA [LOW_PRIORITY | CONCURRENT] [LOCAL] INFILE 'file_name'
    [REPLACE | IGNORE]
    INTO TABLE tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [{FIELDS | COLUMNS}
        [TERMINATED BY 'string']
        [[OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY 'char']
        [ESCAPED BY 'char']
    ]
    [LINES
        [STARTING BY 'string']
        [TERMINATED BY 'string']
    ]
    [IGNORE number {LINES | ROWS}]
    [(col_name_or_user_var
        [, col_name_or_user_var] ...)]
    [SET col_name={expr | DEFAULT},
        [, col_name={expr | DEFAULT}] ...]

The LOAD DATA INFILE statement reads rows from a text file into a table at a very high speed. LOAD DATA INFILE is the complement of SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE. (See Section 13.2.9.1, “SELECT ... INTO Syntax”.) To write data from a table to a file, use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE. To read the file back into a table, use LOAD DATA INFILE. The syntax of the FIELDS and LINES clauses is the same for both statements. Both clauses are optional, but FIELDS must precede LINES if both are specified.

You can also load data files by using the mysqlimport utility; it operates by sending a LOAD DATA INFILE statement to the server. The --local option causes mysqlimport to read data files from the client host. You can specify the --compress option to get better performance over slow networks if the client and server support the compressed protocol. See Section 4.5.5, “mysqlimport — A Data Import Program”.

For more information about the efficiency of INSERT versus LOAD DATA INFILE and speeding up LOAD DATA INFILE, see Section 8.2.4.1, “Optimizing INSERT Statements”.

The file name must be given as a literal string. On Windows, specify backslashes in path names as forward slashes or doubled backslashes. The character_set_filesystem system variable controls the interpretation of the file name.

LOAD DATA supports explicit partition selection using the PARTITION option with a list of one or more comma-separated names of partitions, subpartitions, or both. When this option is used, if any rows from the file cannot be inserted into any of the partitions or subpartitions named in the list, the statement fails with the error Found a row not matching the given partition set. For more information and examples, see Section 22.5, “Partition Selection”.

For partitioned tables using storage engines that employ table locks, such as MyISAM, LOAD DATA cannot prune any partition locks. This does not apply to tables using storage engines which employ row-level locking, such as InnoDB. For more information, see Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

The server uses the character set indicated by the character_set_database system variable to interpret the information in the file. SET NAMES and the setting of character_set_client do not affect interpretation of input. If the contents of the input file use a character set that differs from the default, it is usually preferable to specify the character set of the file by using the CHARACTER SET clause. A character set of binary specifies no conversion.

LOAD DATA INFILE interprets all fields in the file as having the same character set, regardless of the data types of the columns into which field values are loaded. For proper interpretation of file contents, you must ensure that it was written with the correct character set. For example, if you write a data file with mysqldump -T or by issuing a SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE statement in mysql, be sure to use a --default-character-set option so that output is written in the character set to be used when the file is loaded with LOAD DATA INFILE.

Note

It is not possible to load data files that use the ucs2, utf16, utf16le, or utf32 character set.

If you use LOW_PRIORITY, execution of the LOAD DATA statement is delayed until no other clients are reading from the table. This affects only storage engines that use only table-level locking (such as MyISAM, MEMORY, and MERGE).

If you specify CONCURRENT with a MyISAM table that satisfies the condition for concurrent inserts (that is, it contains no free blocks in the middle), other threads can retrieve data from the table while LOAD DATA is executing. This option affects the performance of LOAD DATA a bit, even if no other thread is using the table at the same time.

With row-based replication, CONCURRENT is replicated regardless of MySQL version. With statement-based replication CONCURRENT is not replicated prior to MySQL 5.5.1 (see Bug #34628). For more information, see Section 16.4.1.18, “Replication and LOAD DATA INFILE”.

The LOCAL keyword affects expected location of the file and error handling, as described later. LOCAL works only if your server and your client both have been configured to permit it. For example, if mysqld was started with the local_infile system variable disabled, LOCAL does not work. See Section 6.1.6, “Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”.

The LOCAL keyword affects where the file is expected to be found:

  • If LOCAL is specified, the file is read by the client program on the client host and sent to the server. The file can be given as a full path name to specify its exact location. If given as a relative path name, the name is interpreted relative to the directory in which the client program was started.

    When using LOCAL with LOAD DATA, a copy of the file is created in the server's temporary directory. This is not the directory determined by the value of tmpdir or slave_load_tmpdir, but rather the operating system's temporary directory, and is not configurable in the MySQL Server. (Typically the system temporary directory is /tmp on Linux systems and C:\WINDOWS\TEMP on Windows.) Lack of sufficient space for the copy in this directory can cause the LOAD DATA LOCAL statement to fail.

  • If LOCAL is not specified, the file must be located on the server host and is read directly by the server. The server uses the following rules to locate the file:

    • If the file name is an absolute path name, the server uses it as given.

    • If the file name is a relative path name with one or more leading components, the server searches for the file relative to the server's data directory.

    • If a file name with no leading components is given, the server looks for the file in the database directory of the default database.

In the non-LOCAL case, these rules mean that a file named as ./myfile.txt is read from the server's data directory, whereas the file named as myfile.txt is read from the database directory of the default database. For example, if db1 is the default database, the following LOAD DATA statement reads the file data.txt from the database directory for db1, even though the statement explicitly loads the file into a table in the db2 database:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'data.txt' INTO TABLE db2.my_table;

Non-LOCAL load operations read text files located on the server. For security reasons, such operations require that you have the FILE privilege. See Section 6.2.1, “Privileges Provided by MySQL”. Also, non-LOCAL load operations are subject to the secure_file_priv system variable setting. If the variable value is a nonempty directory name, the file to be loaded must be located in that directory. If the variable value is empty (which is insecure), the file need only be readable by the server.

Using LOCAL is a bit slower than letting the server access the files directly, because the contents of the file must be sent over the connection by the client to the server. On the other hand, you do not need the FILE privilege to load local files.

LOCAL also affects error handling:

  • With LOAD DATA INFILE, data-interpretation and duplicate-key errors terminate the operation.

  • With LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE, data-interpretation and duplicate-key errors become warnings and the operation continues because the server has no way to stop transmission of the file in the middle of the operation. For duplicate-key errors, this is the same as if IGNORE is specified. IGNORE is explained further later in this section.

The REPLACE and IGNORE keywords control handling of input rows that duplicate existing rows on unique key values:

  • If you specify REPLACE, input rows replace existing rows. In other words, rows that have the same value for a primary key or unique index as an existing row. See Section 13.2.8, “REPLACE Syntax”.

  • If you specify IGNORE, rows that duplicate an existing row on a unique key value are discarded. For more information, see Comparison of the IGNORE Keyword and Strict SQL Mode.

  • If you do not specify either option, the behavior depends on whether the LOCAL keyword is specified. Without LOCAL, an error occurs when a duplicate key value is found, and the rest of the text file is ignored. With LOCAL, the default behavior is the same as if IGNORE is specified; this is because the server has no way to stop transmission of the file in the middle of the operation.

To ignore foreign key constraints during the load operation, issue a SET foreign_key_checks = 0 statement before executing LOAD DATA.

If you use LOAD DATA INFILE on an empty MyISAM table, all nonunique indexes are created in a separate batch (as for REPAIR TABLE). Normally, this makes LOAD DATA INFILE much faster when you have many indexes. In some extreme cases, you can create the indexes even faster by turning them off with ALTER TABLE ... DISABLE KEYS before loading the file into the table and using ALTER TABLE ... ENABLE KEYS to re-create the indexes after loading the file. See Section 8.2.4.1, “Optimizing INSERT Statements”.

For both the LOAD DATA INFILE and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE statements, the syntax of the FIELDS and LINES clauses is the same. Both clauses are optional, but FIELDS must precede LINES if both are specified.

If you specify a FIELDS clause, each of its subclauses (TERMINATED BY, [OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY, and ESCAPED BY) is also optional, except that you must specify at least one of them.

If you specify no FIELDS or LINES clause, the defaults are the same as if you had written this:

FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\t' ENCLOSED BY '' ESCAPED BY '\\'
LINES TERMINATED BY '\n' STARTING BY ''

(Backslash is the MySQL escape character within strings in SQL statements, so to specify a literal backslash, you must specify two backslashes for the value to be interpreted as a single backslash. The escape sequences '\t' and '\n' specify tab and newline characters, respectively.)

In other words, the defaults cause LOAD DATA INFILE to act as follows when reading input:

  • Look for line boundaries at newlines.

  • Do not skip over any line prefix.

  • Break lines into fields at tabs.

  • Do not expect fields to be enclosed within any quoting characters.

  • Interpret characters preceded by the escape character \ as escape sequences. For example, \t, \n, and \\ signify tab, newline, and backslash, respectively. See the discussion of FIELDS ESCAPED BY later for the full list of escape sequences.

Conversely, the defaults cause SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE to act as follows when writing output:

  • Write tabs between fields.

  • Do not enclose fields within any quoting characters.

  • Use \ to escape instances of tab, newline, or \ that occur within field values.

  • Write newlines at the ends of lines.

Note

If you have generated the text file on a Windows system, you might have to use LINES TERMINATED BY '\r\n' to read the file properly, because Windows programs typically use two characters as a line terminator. Some programs, such as WordPad, might use \r as a line terminator when writing files. To read such files, use LINES TERMINATED BY '\r'.

If all the lines you want to read in have a common prefix that you want to ignore, you can use LINES STARTING BY 'prefix_string' to skip over the prefix, and anything before it. If a line does not include the prefix, the entire line is skipped. Suppose that you issue the following statement:

LOAD DATA INFILE '/tmp/test.txt' INTO TABLE test
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','  LINES STARTING BY 'xxx';

If the data file looks like this:

xxx"abc",1
something xxx"def",2
"ghi",3

The resulting rows will be ("abc",1) and ("def",2). The third row in the file is skipped because it does not contain the prefix.

The IGNORE number LINES option can be used to ignore lines at the start of the file. For example, you can use IGNORE 1 LINES to skip over an initial header line containing column names:

LOAD DATA INFILE '/tmp/test.txt' INTO TABLE test IGNORE 1 LINES;

When you use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE in tandem with LOAD DATA INFILE to write data from a database into a file and then read the file back into the database later, the field- and line-handling options for both statements must match. Otherwise, LOAD DATA INFILE will not interpret the contents of the file properly. Suppose that you use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE to write a file with fields delimited by commas:

SELECT * INTO OUTFILE 'data.txt'
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
  FROM table2;

To read the comma-delimited file back in, the correct statement would be:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'data.txt' INTO TABLE table2
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',';

If instead you tried to read in the file with the statement shown following, it wouldn't work because it instructs LOAD DATA INFILE to look for tabs between fields:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'data.txt' INTO TABLE table2
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\t';

The likely result is that each input line would be interpreted as a single field.

LOAD DATA INFILE can be used to read files obtained from external sources. For example, many programs can export data in comma-separated values (CSV) format, such that lines have fields separated by commas and enclosed within double quotation marks, with an initial line of column names. If the lines in such a file are terminated by carriage return/newline pairs, the statement shown here illustrates the field- and line-handling options you would use to load the file:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'data.txt' INTO TABLE tbl_name
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' ENCLOSED BY '"'
  LINES TERMINATED BY '\r\n'
  IGNORE 1 LINES;

If the input values are not necessarily enclosed within quotation marks, use OPTIONALLY before the ENCLOSED BY keywords.

Any of the field- or line-handling options can specify an empty string (''). If not empty, the FIELDS [OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY and FIELDS ESCAPED BY values must be a single character. The FIELDS TERMINATED BY, LINES STARTING BY, and LINES TERMINATED BY values can be more than one character. For example, to write lines that are terminated by carriage return/linefeed pairs, or to read a file containing such lines, specify a LINES TERMINATED BY '\r\n' clause.

To read a file containing jokes that are separated by lines consisting of %%, you can do this

CREATE TABLE jokes
  (a INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
  joke TEXT NOT NULL);
LOAD DATA INFILE '/tmp/jokes.txt' INTO TABLE jokes
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ''
  LINES TERMINATED BY '\n%%\n' (joke);

FIELDS [OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY controls quoting of fields. For output (SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE), if you omit the word OPTIONALLY, all fields are enclosed by the ENCLOSED BY character. An example of such output (using a comma as the field delimiter) is shown here:

"1","a string","100.20"
"2","a string containing a , comma","102.20"
"3","a string containing a \" quote","102.20"
"4","a string containing a \", quote and comma","102.20"

If you specify OPTIONALLY, the ENCLOSED BY character is used only to enclose values from columns that have a string data type (such as CHAR, BINARY, TEXT, or ENUM):

1,"a string",100.20
2,"a string containing a , comma",102.20
3,"a string containing a \" quote",102.20
4,"a string containing a \", quote and comma",102.20

Occurrences of the ENCLOSED BY character within a field value are escaped by prefixing them with the ESCAPED BY character. Also, if you specify an empty ESCAPED BY value, it is possible to inadvertently generate output that cannot be read properly by LOAD DATA INFILE. For example, the preceding output just shown would appear as follows if the escape character is empty. Observe that the second field in the fourth line contains a comma following the quote, which (erroneously) appears to terminate the field:

1,"a string",100.20
2,"a string containing a , comma",102.20
3,"a string containing a " quote",102.20
4,"a string containing a ", quote and comma",102.20

For input, the ENCLOSED BY character, if present, is stripped from the ends of field values. (This is true regardless of whether OPTIONALLY is specified; OPTIONALLY has no effect on input interpretation.) Occurrences of the ENCLOSED BY character preceded by the ESCAPED BY character are interpreted as part of the current field value.

If the field begins with the ENCLOSED BY character, instances of that character are recognized as terminating a field value only if followed by the field or line TERMINATED BY sequence. To avoid ambiguity, occurrences of the ENCLOSED BY character within a field value can be doubled and are interpreted as a single instance of the character. For example, if ENCLOSED BY '"' is specified, quotation marks are handled as shown here:

"The ""BIG"" boss"  -> The "BIG" boss
The "BIG" boss      -> The "BIG" boss
The ""BIG"" boss    -> The ""BIG"" boss

FIELDS ESCAPED BY controls how to read or write special characters:

  • For input, if the FIELDS ESCAPED BY character is not empty, occurrences of that character are stripped and the following character is taken literally as part of a field value. Some two-character sequences that are exceptions, where the first character is the escape character. These sequences are shown in the following table (using \ for the escape character). The rules for NULL handling are described later in this section.

    CharacterEscape Sequence
    \0 An ASCII NUL (X'00') character
    \b A backspace character
    \n A newline (linefeed) character
    \r A carriage return character
    \t A tab character.
    \Z ASCII 26 (Control+Z)
    \N NULL

    For more information about \-escape syntax, see Section 9.1.1, “String Literals”.

    If the FIELDS ESCAPED BY character is empty, escape-sequence interpretation does not occur.

  • For output, if the FIELDS ESCAPED BY character is not empty, it is used to prefix the following characters on output:

    • The FIELDS ESCAPED BY character

    • The FIELDS [OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY character

    • The first character of the FIELDS TERMINATED BY and LINES TERMINATED BY values

    • ASCII 0 (what is actually written following the escape character is ASCII 0, not a zero-valued byte)

    If the FIELDS ESCAPED BY character is empty, no characters are escaped and NULL is output as NULL, not \N. It is probably not a good idea to specify an empty escape character, particularly if field values in your data contain any of the characters in the list just given.

In certain cases, field- and line-handling options interact:

  • If LINES TERMINATED BY is an empty string and FIELDS TERMINATED BY is nonempty, lines are also terminated with FIELDS TERMINATED BY.

  • If the FIELDS TERMINATED BY and FIELDS ENCLOSED BY values are both empty (''), a fixed-row (nondelimited) format is used. With fixed-row format, no delimiters are used between fields (but you can still have a line terminator). Instead, column values are read and written using a field width wide enough to hold all values in the field. For TINYINT, SMALLINT, MEDIUMINT, INT, and BIGINT, the field widths are 4, 6, 8, 11, and 20, respectively, no matter what the declared display width is.

    LINES TERMINATED BY is still used to separate lines. If a line does not contain all fields, the rest of the columns are set to their default values. If you do not have a line terminator, you should set this to ''. In this case, the text file must contain all fields for each row.

    Fixed-row format also affects handling of NULL values, as described later.

    Note

    Fixed-size format does not work if you are using a multibyte character set.

Handling of NULL values varies according to the FIELDS and LINES options in use:

  • For the default FIELDS and LINES values, NULL is written as a field value of \N for output, and a field value of \N is read as NULL for input (assuming that the ESCAPED BY character is \).

  • If FIELDS ENCLOSED BY is not empty, a field containing the literal word NULL as its value is read as a NULL value. This differs from the word NULL enclosed within FIELDS ENCLOSED BY characters, which is read as the string 'NULL'.

  • If FIELDS ESCAPED BY is empty, NULL is written as the word NULL.

  • With fixed-row format (which is used when FIELDS TERMINATED BY and FIELDS ENCLOSED BY are both empty), NULL is written as an empty string. This causes both NULL values and empty strings in the table to be indistinguishable when written to the file because both are written as empty strings. If you need to be able to tell the two apart when reading the file back in, you should not use fixed-row format.

An attempt to load NULL into a NOT NULL column causes assignment of the implicit default value for the column's data type and a warning, or an error in strict SQL mode. Implicit default values are discussed in Section 11.7, “Data Type Default Values”.

Some cases are not supported by LOAD DATA INFILE:

  • Fixed-size rows (FIELDS TERMINATED BY and FIELDS ENCLOSED BY both empty) and BLOB or TEXT columns.

  • If you specify one separator that is the same as or a prefix of another, LOAD DATA INFILE cannot interpret the input properly. For example, the following FIELDS clause would cause problems:

    FIELDS TERMINATED BY '"' ENCLOSED BY '"'
    
  • If FIELDS ESCAPED BY is empty, a field value that contains an occurrence of FIELDS ENCLOSED BY or LINES TERMINATED BY followed by the FIELDS TERMINATED BY value causes LOAD DATA INFILE to stop reading a field or line too early. This happens because LOAD DATA INFILE cannot properly determine where the field or line value ends.

The following example loads all columns of the persondata table:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'persondata.txt' INTO TABLE persondata;

By default, when no column list is provided at the end of the LOAD DATA INFILE statement, input lines are expected to contain a field for each table column. If you want to load only some of a table's columns, specify a column list:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'persondata.txt' INTO TABLE persondata (col1,col2,...);

You must also specify a column list if the order of the fields in the input file differs from the order of the columns in the table. Otherwise, MySQL cannot tell how to match input fields with table columns.

The column list can contain either column names or user variables. With user variables, the SET clause enables you to perform transformations on their values before assigning the result to columns.

User variables in the SET clause can be used in several ways. The following example uses the first input column directly for the value of t1.column1, and assigns the second input column to a user variable that is subjected to a division operation before being used for the value of t1.column2:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'file.txt'
  INTO TABLE t1
  (column1, @var1)
  SET column2 = @var1/100;

The SET clause can be used to supply values not derived from the input file. The following statement sets column3 to the current date and time:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'file.txt'
  INTO TABLE t1
  (column1, column2)
  SET column3 = CURRENT_TIMESTAMP;

You can also discard an input value by assigning it to a user variable and not assigning the variable to a table column:

LOAD DATA INFILE 'file.txt'
  INTO TABLE t1
  (column1, @dummy, column2, @dummy, column3);

Use of the column/variable list and SET clause is subject to the following restrictions:

  • Assignments in the SET clause should have only column names on the left hand side of assignment operators.

  • You can use subqueries in the right hand side of SET assignments. A subquery that returns a value to be assigned to a column may be a scalar subquery only. Also, you cannot use a subquery to select from the table that is being loaded.

  • Lines ignored by an IGNORE clause are not processed for the column/variable list or SET clause.

  • User variables cannot be used when loading data with fixed-row format because user variables do not have a display width.

When processing an input line, LOAD DATA splits it into fields and uses the values according to the column/variable list and the SET clause, if they are present. Then the resulting row is inserted into the table. If there are BEFORE INSERT or AFTER INSERT triggers for the table, they are activated before or after inserting the row, respectively.

If an input line has too many fields, the extra fields are ignored and the number of warnings is incremented.

If an input line has too few fields, the table columns for which input fields are missing are set to their default values. Default value assignment is described in Section 11.7, “Data Type Default Values”.

An empty field value is interpreted different from a missing field:

  • For string types, the column is set to the empty string.

  • For numeric types, the column is set to 0.

  • For date and time types, the column is set to the appropriate zero value for the type. See Section 11.3, “Date and Time Types”.

These are the same values that result if you assign an empty string explicitly to a string, numeric, or date or time type explicitly in an INSERT or UPDATE statement.

Treatment of empty or incorrect field values differs from that just described if the SQL mode is set to a restrictive value. For example, if sql_mode is set to TRADITIONAL, conversion of an empty value or a value such as 'x' for a numeric column results in an error, not conversion to 0. (With LOCAL or IGNORE, warnings occur rather than errors, even with a restrictive sql_mode value, and the row is inserted using the same closest-value behavior used for nonrestrictive SQL modes. This occurs because the server has no way to stop transmission of the file in the middle of the operation.)

TIMESTAMP columns are set to the current date and time only if there is a NULL value for the column (that is, \N) and the column is not declared to permit NULL values, or if the TIMESTAMP column's default value is the current timestamp and it is omitted from the field list when a field list is specified.

LOAD DATA INFILE regards all input as strings, so you cannot use numeric values for ENUM or SET columns the way you can with INSERT statements. All ENUM and SET values must be specified as strings.

BIT values cannot be loaded directly using binary notation (for example, b'011010'). To work around this, use the SET clause to strip off the leading b' and trailing ' and perform a base-2 to base-10 conversion so that MySQL loads the values into the BIT column properly:

shell> cat /tmp/bit_test.txt
b'10'
b'1111111'
shell> mysql test
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE '/tmp/bit_test.txt'
       INTO TABLE bit_test (@var1)
       SET b = CAST(CONV(MID(@var1, 3, LENGTH(@var1)-3), 2, 10) AS UNSIGNED);
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 2  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT BIN(b+0) FROM bit_test;
+----------+
| BIN(b+0) |
+----------+
| 10       |
| 1111111  |
+----------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

For BIT values in 0b binary notation (for example, 0b011010), use this SET clause instead to strip off the leading 0b:

SET b = CAST(CONV(MID(@var1, 3, LENGTH(@var1)-2), 2, 10) AS UNSIGNED)

On Unix, if you need LOAD DATA to read from a pipe, you can use the following technique (the example loads a listing of the / directory into the table db1.t1):

mkfifo /mysql/data/db1/ls.dat
chmod 666 /mysql/data/db1/ls.dat
find / -ls > /mysql/data/db1/ls.dat &
mysql -e "LOAD DATA INFILE 'ls.dat' INTO TABLE t1" db1

Here you must run the command that generates the data to be loaded and the mysql commands either on separate terminals, or run the data generation process in the background (as shown in the preceding example). If you do not do this, the pipe will block until data is read by the mysql process.

When the LOAD DATA INFILE statement finishes, it returns an information string in the following format:

Records: 1  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

Warnings occur under the same circumstances as when values are inserted using the INSERT statement (see Section 13.2.5, “INSERT Syntax”), except that LOAD DATA INFILE also generates warnings when there are too few or too many fields in the input row.

You can use SHOW WARNINGS to get a list of the first max_error_count warnings as information about what went wrong. See Section 13.7.5.40, “SHOW WARNINGS Syntax”.

If you are using the C API, you can get information about the statement by calling the mysql_info() function. See Section 27.8.7.36, “mysql_info()”.

13.2.7 LOAD XML Syntax

LOAD XML [LOW_PRIORITY | CONCURRENT] [LOCAL] INFILE 'file_name'
    [REPLACE | IGNORE]
    INTO TABLE [db_name.]tbl_name
    [CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [ROWS IDENTIFIED BY '<tagname>']
    [IGNORE number {LINES | ROWS}]
    [(field_name_or_user_var
        [, field_name_or_user_var] ...)]
    [SET col_name={expr | DEFAULT},
        [, col_name={expr | DEFAULT}] ...]

The LOAD XML statement reads data from an XML file into a table. The file_name must be given as a literal string. The tagname in the optional ROWS IDENTIFIED BY clause must also be given as a literal string, and must be surrounded by angle brackets (< and >).

LOAD XML acts as the complement of running the mysql client in XML output mode (that is, starting the client with the --xml option). To write data from a table to an XML file, you can invoke the mysql client with the --xml and -e options from the system shell, as shown here:

shell> mysql --xml -e 'SELECT * FROM mydb.mytable' > file.xml

To read the file back into a table, use LOAD XML INFILE. By default, the <row> element is considered to be the equivalent of a database table row; this can be changed using the ROWS IDENTIFIED BY clause.

This statement supports three different XML formats:

  • Column names as attributes and column values as attribute values:

    <row column1="value1" column2="value2" .../>
    
  • Column names as tags and column values as the content of these tags:

    <row>
      <column1>value1</column1>
      <column2>value2</column2>
    </row>
    
  • Column names are the name attributes of <field> tags, and values are the contents of these tags:

    <row>
      <field name='column1'>value1</field>
      <field name='column2'>value2</field>
    </row>
    

    This is the format used by other MySQL tools, such as mysqldump.

All three formats can be used in the same XML file; the import routine automatically detects the format for each row and interprets it correctly. Tags are matched based on the tag or attribute name and the column name.

The following clauses work essentially the same way for LOAD XML as they do for LOAD DATA:

  • LOW_PRIORITY or CONCURRENT

  • LOCAL

  • REPLACE or IGNORE

  • CHARACTER SET

  • SET

See Section 13.2.6, “LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax”, for more information about these clauses.

(field_name_or_user_var, ...) is a list of one or more comma-separated XML fields or user variables. The name of a user variable used for this purpose must match the name of a field from the XML file, prefixed with @. You can use field names to select only desired fields. User variables can be employed to store the corresponding field values for subsequent re-use.

The IGNORE number LINES or IGNORE number ROWS clause causes the first number rows in the XML file to be skipped. It is analogous to the LOAD DATA statement's IGNORE ... LINES clause.

Suppose that we have a table named person, created as shown here:

USE test;

CREATE TABLE person (
    person_id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
    fname VARCHAR(40) NULL,
    lname VARCHAR(40) NULL,
    created TIMESTAMP
);

Suppose further that this table is initially empty.

Now suppose that we have a simple XML file person.xml, whose contents are as shown here:

<list>
  <person person_id="1" fname="Kapek" lname="Sainnouine"/>
  <person person_id="2" fname="Sajon" lname="Rondela"/>
  <person person_id="3"><fname>Likame</fname><lname>Örrtmons</lname></person>
  <person person_id="4"><fname>Slar</fname><lname>Manlanth</lname></person>
  <person><field name="person_id">5</field><field name="fname">Stoma</field>
    <field name="lname">Milu</field></person>
  <person><field name="person_id">6</field><field name="fname">Nirtam</field>
    <field name="lname">Sklöd</field></person>
  <person person_id="7"><fname>Sungam</fname><lname>Dulbåd</lname></person>
  <person person_id="8" fname="Sraref" lname="Encmelt"/>
</list>

Each of the permissible XML formats discussed previously is represented in this example file.

To import the data in person.xml into the person table, you can use this statement:

mysql> LOAD XML LOCAL INFILE 'person.xml'
    ->   INTO TABLE person
    ->   ROWS IDENTIFIED BY '<person>';

Query OK, 8 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 8  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

Here, we assume that person.xml is located in the MySQL data directory. If the file cannot be found, the following error results:

ERROR 2 (HY000): File '/person.xml' not found (Errcode: 2)

The ROWS IDENTIFIED BY '<person>' clause means that each <person> element in the XML file is considered equivalent to a row in the table into which the data is to be imported. In this case, this is the person table in the test database.

As can be seen by the response from the server, 8 rows were imported into the test.person table. This can be verified by a simple SELECT statement:

mysql> SELECT * FROM person;
+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+
| person_id | fname  | lname      | created             |
+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+
|         1 | Kapek  | Sainnouine | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         2 | Sajon  | Rondela    | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         3 | Likame | Örrtmons   | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         4 | Slar   | Manlanth   | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         5 | Stoma  | Nilu       | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         6 | Nirtam | Sklöd      | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         7 | Sungam | Dulbåd     | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         8 | Sreraf | Encmelt    | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This shows, as stated earlier in this section, that any or all of the 3 permitted XML formats may appear in a single file and be read in using LOAD XML.

The inverse of the import operation just shown—that is, dumping MySQL table data into an XML file—can be accomplished using the mysql client from the system shell, as shown here:

shell> mysql --xml -e "SELECT * FROM test.person" > person-dump.xml
shell> cat person-dump.xml
<?xml version="1.0"?>

<resultset statement="SELECT * FROM test.person" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
  <row>
	<field name="person_id">1</field>
	<field name="fname">Kapek</field>
	<field name="lname">Sainnouine</field>
  </row>

  <row>
	<field name="person_id">2</field>
	<field name="fname">Sajon</field>
	<field name="lname">Rondela</field>
  </row>

  <row>
	<field name="person_id">3</field>
	<field name="fname">Likema</field>
	<field name="lname">Örrtmons</field>
  </row>

  <row>
	<field name="person_id">4</field>
	<field name="fname">Slar</field>
	<field name="lname">Manlanth</field>
  </row>

  <row>
	<field name="person_id">5</field>
	<field name="fname">Stoma</field>
	<field name="lname">Nilu</field>
  </row>

  <row>
	<field name="person_id">6</field>
	<field name="fname">Nirtam</field>
	<field name="lname">Sklöd</field>
  </row>

  <row>
	<field name="person_id">7</field>
	<field name="fname">Sungam</field>
	<field name="lname">Dulbåd</field>
  </row>

  <row>
	<field name="person_id">8</field>
	<field name="fname">Sreraf</field>
	<field name="lname">Encmelt</field>
  </row>
</resultset>
Note

The --xml option causes the mysql client to use XML formatting for its output; the -e option causes the client to execute the SQL statement immediately following the option. See Section 4.5.1, “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool”.

You can verify that the dump is valid by creating a copy of the person table and importing the dump file into the new table, like this:

mysql> USE test;
mysql> CREATE TABLE person2 LIKE person;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> LOAD XML LOCAL INFILE 'person-dump.xml'
    ->   INTO TABLE person2;
Query OK, 8 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 8  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT * FROM person2;
+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+
| person_id | fname  | lname      | created             |
+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+
|         1 | Kapek  | Sainnouine | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         2 | Sajon  | Rondela    | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         3 | Likema | Örrtmons   | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         4 | Slar   | Manlanth   | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         5 | Stoma  | Nilu       | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         6 | Nirtam | Sklöd      | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         7 | Sungam | Dulbåd     | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|         8 | Sreraf | Encmelt    | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

There is no requirement that every field in the XML file be matched with a column in the corresponding table. Fields which have no corresponding columns are skipped. You can see this by first emptying the person2 table and dropping the created column, then using the same LOAD XML statement we just employed previously, like this:

mysql> TRUNCATE person2;
Query OK, 8 rows affected (0.26 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE person2 DROP COLUMN created;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.52 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE person2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: person2
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `person2` (
  `person_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `fname` varchar(40) DEFAULT NULL,
  `lname` varchar(40) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`person_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> LOAD XML LOCAL INFILE 'person-dump.xml'
    ->   INTO TABLE person2;
Query OK, 8 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 8  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT * FROM person2;
+-----------+--------+------------+
| person_id | fname  | lname      |
+-----------+--------+------------+
|         1 | Kapek  | Sainnouine |
|         2 | Sajon  | Rondela    |
|         3 | Likema | Örrtmons   |
|         4 | Slar   | Manlanth   |
|         5 | Stoma  | Nilu       |
|         6 | Nirtam | Sklöd      |
|         7 | Sungam | Dulbåd     |
|         8 | Sreraf | Encmelt    |
+-----------+--------+------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

The order in which the fields are given within each row of the XML file does not affect the operation of LOAD XML; the field order can vary from row to row, and is not required to be in the same order as the corresponding columns in the table.

As mentioned previously, you can use a (field_name_or_user_var, ...) list of one or more XML fields (to select desired fields only) or user variables (to store the corresponding field values for later use). User variables can be especially useful when you want to insert data from an XML file into table columns whose names do not match those of the XML fields. To see how this works, we first create a table named individual whose structure matches that of the person table, but whose columns are named differently:

mysql> CREATE TABLE individual (
    ->     individual_id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
    ->     name1 VARCHAR(40) NULL,
    ->     name2 VARCHAR(40) NULL,
    ->     made TIMESTAMP
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.42 sec)

In this case, you cannot simply load the XML file directly into the table, because the field and column names do not match:

mysql> LOAD XML INFILE '../bin/person-dump.xml' INTO TABLE test.individual;
ERROR 1263 (22004): Column set to default value; NULL supplied to NOT NULL column 'individual_id' at row 1

This happens because the MySQL server looks for field names matching the column names of the target table. You can work around this problem by selecting the field values into user variables, then setting the target table's columns equal to the values of those variables using SET. You can perform both of these operations in a single statement, as shown here:

mysql> LOAD XML INFILE '../bin/person-dump.xml'
    ->     INTO TABLE test.individual (@person_id, @fname, @lname, @created)
    ->     SET individual_id=@person_id, name1=@fname, name2=@lname, made=@created;
Query OK, 8 rows affected (0.05 sec)
Records: 8  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT * FROM individual;
+---------------+--------+------------+---------------------+
| individual_id | name1  | name2      | made                |
+---------------+--------+------------+---------------------+
|             1 | Kapek  | Sainnouine | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|             2 | Sajon  | Rondela    | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|             3 | Likema | Örrtmons   | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|             4 | Slar   | Manlanth   | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|             5 | Stoma  | Nilu       | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|             6 | Nirtam | Sklöd      | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|             7 | Sungam | Dulbåd     | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
|             8 | Srraf  | Encmelt    | 2007-07-13 16:18:47 |
+---------------+--------+------------+---------------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

The names of the user variables must match those of the corresponding fields from the XML file, with the addition of the required @ prefix to indicate that they are variables. The user variables need not be listed or assigned in the same order as the corresponding fields.

Using a ROWS IDENTIFIED BY '<tagname>' clause, it is possible to import data from the same XML file into database tables with different definitions. For this example, suppose that you have a file named address.xml which contains the following XML:

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<list>
  <person person_id="1">
    <fname>Robert</fname>
    <lname>Jones</lname>
    <address address_id="1" street="Mill Creek Road" zip="45365" city="Sidney"/>
    <address address_id="2" street="Main Street" zip="28681" city="Taylorsville"/>
  </person>

  <person person_id="2">
    <fname>Mary</fname>
    <lname>Smith</lname>
    <address address_id="3" street="River Road" zip="80239" city="Denver"/>
    <!-- <address address_id="4" street="North Street" zip="37920" city="Knoxville"/> -->
  </person>

</list>

You can again use the test.person table as defined previously in this section, after clearing all the existing records from the table and then showing its structure as shown here:

mysql< TRUNCATE person;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql< SHOW CREATE TABLE person\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: person
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `person` (
  `person_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `fname` varchar(40) DEFAULT NULL,
  `lname` varchar(40) DEFAULT NULL,
  `created` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
  PRIMARY KEY (`person_id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Now create an address table in the test database using the following CREATE TABLE statement:

CREATE TABLE address (
    address_id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
    person_id INT NULL,
    street VARCHAR(40) NULL,
    zip INT NULL,
    city VARCHAR(40) NULL,
    created TIMESTAMP
);

To import the data from the XML file into the person table, execute the following LOAD XML statement, which specifies that rows are to be specified by the <person> element, as shown here;

mysql> LOAD XML LOCAL INFILE 'address.xml'
    ->   INTO TABLE person
    ->   ROWS IDENTIFIED BY '<person>';
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 2  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

You can verify that the records were imported using a SELECT statement:

mysql> SELECT * FROM person;
+-----------+--------+-------+---------------------+
| person_id | fname  | lname | created             |
+-----------+--------+-------+---------------------+
|         1 | Robert | Jones | 2007-07-24 17:37:06 |
|         2 | Mary   | Smith | 2007-07-24 17:37:06 |
+-----------+--------+-------+---------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Since the <address> elements in the XML file have no corresponding columns in the person table, they are skipped.

To import the data from the <address> elements into the address table, use the LOAD XML statement shown here:

mysql> LOAD XML LOCAL INFILE 'address.xml'
    ->   INTO TABLE address
    ->   ROWS IDENTIFIED BY '<address>';
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 3  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0

You can see that the data was imported using a SELECT statement such as this one:

mysql> SELECT * FROM address;
+------------+-----------+-----------------+-------+--------------+---------------------+
| address_id | person_id | street          | zip   | city         | created             |
+------------+-----------+-----------------+-------+--------------+---------------------+
|          1 |         1 | Mill Creek Road | 45365 | Sidney       | 2007-07-24 17:37:37 |
|          2 |         1 | Main Street     | 28681 | Taylorsville | 2007-07-24 17:37:37 |
|          3 |         2 | River Road      | 80239 | Denver       | 2007-07-24 17:37:37 |
+------------+-----------+-----------------+-------+--------------+---------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

The data from the <address> element that is enclosed in XML comments is not imported. However, since there is a person_id column in the address table, the value of the person_id attribute from the parent <person> element for each <address> is imported into the address table.

Security Considerations.  As with the LOAD DATA statement, the transfer of the XML file from the client host to the server host is initiated by the MySQL server. In theory, a patched server could be built that would tell the client program to transfer a file of the server's choosing rather than the file named by the client in the LOAD XML statement. Such a server could access any file on the client host to which the client user has read access.

In a Web environment, clients usually connect to MySQL from a Web server. A user that can run any command against the MySQL server can use LOAD XML LOCAL to read any files to which the Web server process has read access. In this environment, the client with respect to the MySQL server is actually the Web server, not the remote program being run by the user who connects to the Web server.

You can disable loading of XML files from clients by starting the server with --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=OFF. This option can also be used when starting the mysql client to disable LOAD XML for the duration of the client session.

To prevent a client from loading XML files from the server, do not grant the FILE privilege to the corresponding MySQL user account, or revoke this privilege if the client user account already has it.

Important

Revoking the FILE privilege (or not granting it in the first place) keeps the user only from executing the LOAD XML INFILE statement (as well as the LOAD_FILE() function; it does not prevent the user from executing LOAD XML LOCAL INFILE. To disallow this statement, you must start the server or the client with --local-infile=OFF.

In other words, the FILE privilege affects only whether the client can read files on the server; it has no bearing on whether the client can read files on the local file system.

For partitioned tables using storage engines that employ table locks, such as MyISAM, any locks caused by LOAD XML perform locks on all partitions of the table. This does not apply to tables using storage engines which employ row-level locking, such as InnoDB. For more information, see Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

13.2.8 REPLACE Syntax

REPLACE [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [(col_name [, col_name] ...)]
    {VALUES | VALUE} (value_list) [, (value_list)] ...

REPLACE [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    SET assignment_list

REPLACE [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [(col_name [, col_name] ...)]
    SELECT ...

value:
    {expr | DEFAULT}

value_list:
    value [, value] ...

assignment:
    col_name = value

assignment_list:
    assignment [, assignment] ...

REPLACE works exactly like INSERT, except that if an old row in the table has the same value as a new row for a PRIMARY KEY or a UNIQUE index, the old row is deleted before the new row is inserted. See Section 13.2.5, “INSERT Syntax”.

REPLACE is a MySQL extension to the SQL standard. It either inserts, or deletes and inserts. For another MySQL extension to standard SQL—that either inserts or updates—see Section 13.2.5.2, “INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE Syntax”.

DELAYED inserts and replaces were deprecated in MySQL 5.6. In MySQL 5.7, DELAYED is not supported. The server recognizes but ignores the DELAYED keyword, handles the replace as a nondelayed replace, and generates an ER_WARN_LEGACY_SYNTAX_CONVERTED warning. (REPLACE DELAYED is no longer supported. The statement was converted to REPLACE.) The DELAYED keyword will be removed in a future release.

Note

REPLACE makes sense only if a table has a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE index. Otherwise, it becomes equivalent to INSERT, because there is no index to be used to determine whether a new row duplicates another.

Values for all columns are taken from the values specified in the REPLACE statement. Any missing columns are set to their default values, just as happens for INSERT. You cannot refer to values from the current row and use them in the new row. If you use an assignment such as SET col_name = col_name + 1, the reference to the column name on the right hand side is treated as DEFAULT(col_name), so the assignment is equivalent to SET col_name = DEFAULT(col_name) + 1.

To use REPLACE, you must have both the INSERT and DELETE privileges for the table.

If a generated column is replaced explicitly, the only permitted value is DEFAULT. For information about generated columns, see Section 13.1.18.8, “CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns”.

REPLACE supports explicit partition selection using the PARTITION keyword with a list of comma-separated names of partitions, subpartitions, or both. As with INSERT, if it is not possible to insert the new row into any of these partitions or subpartitions, the REPLACE statement fails with the error Found a row not matching the given partition set. For more information and examples, see Section 22.5, “Partition Selection”.

The REPLACE statement returns a count to indicate the number of rows affected. This is the sum of the rows deleted and inserted. If the count is 1 for a single-row REPLACE, a row was inserted and no rows were deleted. If the count is greater than 1, one or more old rows were deleted before the new row was inserted. It is possible for a single row to replace more than one old row if the table contains multiple unique indexes and the new row duplicates values for different old rows in different unique indexes.

The affected-rows count makes it easy to determine whether REPLACE only added a row or whether it also replaced any rows: Check whether the count is 1 (added) or greater (replaced).

If you are using the C API, the affected-rows count can be obtained using the mysql_affected_rows() function.

You cannot replace into a table and select from the same table in a subquery.

MySQL uses the following algorithm for REPLACE (and LOAD DATA ... REPLACE):

  1. Try to insert the new row into the table

  2. While the insertion fails because a duplicate-key error occurs for a primary key or unique index:

    1. Delete from the table the conflicting row that has the duplicate key value

    2. Try again to insert the new row into the table

It is possible that in the case of a duplicate-key error, a storage engine may perform the REPLACE as an update rather than a delete plus insert, but the semantics are the same. There are no user-visible effects other than a possible difference in how the storage engine increments Handler_xxx status variables.

Because the results of REPLACE ... SELECT statements depend on the ordering of rows from the SELECT and this order cannot always be guaranteed, it is possible when logging these statements for the master and the slave to diverge. For this reason, REPLACE ... SELECT statements are flagged as unsafe for statement-based replication. such statements produce a warning in the error log when using statement-based mode and are written to the binary log using the row-based format when using MIXED mode. See also Section 16.2.1.1, “Advantages and Disadvantages of Statement-Based and Row-Based Replication”.

When modifying an existing table that is not partitioned to accommodate partitioning, or, when modifying the partitioning of an already partitioned table, you may consider altering the table's primary key (see Section 22.6.1, “Partitioning Keys, Primary Keys, and Unique Keys”). You should be aware that, if you do this, the results of REPLACE statements may be affected, just as they would be if you modified the primary key of a nonpartitioned table. Consider the table created by the following CREATE TABLE statement:

CREATE TABLE test (
  id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  data VARCHAR(64) DEFAULT NULL,
  ts TIMESTAMP NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
  PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

When we create this table and run the statements shown in the mysql client, the result is as follows:

mysql> REPLACE INTO test VALUES (1, 'Old', '2014-08-20 18:47:00');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> REPLACE INTO test VALUES (1, 'New', '2014-08-20 18:47:42');
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> SELECT * FROM test;
+----+------+---------------------+
| id | data | ts                  |
+----+------+---------------------+
|  1 | New  | 2014-08-20 18:47:42 |
+----+------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Now we create a second table almost identical to the first, except that the primary key now covers 2 columns, as shown here (emphasized text):

CREATE TABLE test2 (
  id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  data VARCHAR(64) DEFAULT NULL,
  ts TIMESTAMP NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
  PRIMARY KEY (id, ts)
);

When we run on test2 the same two REPLACE statements as we did on the original test table, we obtain a different result:

mysql> REPLACE INTO test2 VALUES (1, 'Old', '2014-08-20 18:47:00');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)

mysql> REPLACE INTO test2 VALUES (1, 'New', '2014-08-20 18:47:42');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.06 sec)

mysql> SELECT * FROM test2;
+----+------+---------------------+
| id | data | ts                  |
+----+------+---------------------+
|  1 | Old  | 2014-08-20 18:47:00 |
|  1 | New  | 2014-08-20 18:47:42 |
+----+------+---------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This is due to the fact that, when run on test2, both the id and ts column values must match those of an existing row for the row to be replaced; otherwise, a row is inserted.

A REPLACE statement affecting a partitioned table using a storage engine such as MyISAM that employs table-level locks locks only those partitions containing rows that match the REPLACE statement WHERE clause, as long as none of the table partitioning columns are updated; otherwise the entire table is locked. (For storage engines such as InnoDB that employ row-level locking, no locking of partitions takes place.) For more information, see Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

13.2.9 SELECT Syntax

SELECT
    [ALL | DISTINCT | DISTINCTROW ]
      [HIGH_PRIORITY]
      [STRAIGHT_JOIN]
      [SQL_SMALL_RESULT] [SQL_BIG_RESULT] [SQL_BUFFER_RESULT]
      [SQL_CACHE | SQL_NO_CACHE] [SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS]
    select_expr [, select_expr ...]
    [FROM table_references
      [PARTITION partition_list]
    [WHERE where_condition]
    [GROUP BY {col_name | expr | position}
      [ASC | DESC], ... [WITH ROLLUP]]
    [HAVING where_condition]
    [ORDER BY {col_name | expr | position}
      [ASC | DESC], ...]
    [LIMIT {[offset,] row_count | row_count OFFSET offset}]
    [PROCEDURE procedure_name(argument_list)]
    [INTO OUTFILE 'file_name'
        [CHARACTER SET charset_name]
        export_options
      | INTO DUMPFILE 'file_name'
      | INTO var_name [, var_name]]
    [FOR UPDATE | LOCK IN SHARE MODE]]

SELECT is used to retrieve rows selected from one or more tables, and can include UNION statements and subqueries. See Section 13.2.9.3, “UNION Syntax”, and Section 13.2.10, “Subquery Syntax”.

The most commonly used clauses of SELECT statements are these:

  • Each select_expr indicates a column that you want to retrieve. There must be at least one select_expr.

  • table_references indicates the table or tables from which to retrieve rows. Its syntax is described in Section 13.2.9.2, “JOIN Syntax”.

  • SELECT supports explicit partition selection using the PARTITION with a list of partitions or subpartitions (or both) following the name of the table in a table_reference (see Section 13.2.9.2, “JOIN Syntax”). In this case, rows are selected only from the partitions listed, and any other partitions of the table are ignored. For more information and examples, see Section 22.5, “Partition Selection”.

    SELECT ... PARTITION from tables using storage engines such as MyISAM that perform table-level locks (and thus partition locks) lock only the partitions or subpartitions named by the PARTITION option.

    For more information, see Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

  • The WHERE clause, if given, indicates the condition or conditions that rows must satisfy to be selected. where_condition is an expression that evaluates to true for each row to be selected. The statement selects all rows if there is no WHERE clause.

    In the WHERE expression, you can use any of the functions and operators that MySQL supports, except for aggregate (summary) functions. See Section 9.5, “Expression Syntax”, and Chapter 12, Functions and Operators.

SELECT can also be used to retrieve rows computed without reference to any table.

For example:

mysql> SELECT 1 + 1;
        -> 2

You are permitted to specify DUAL as a dummy table name in situations where no tables are referenced:

mysql> SELECT 1 + 1 FROM DUAL;
        -> 2

DUAL is purely for the convenience of people who require that all SELECT statements should have FROM and possibly other clauses. MySQL may ignore the clauses. MySQL does not require FROM DUAL if no tables are referenced.

In general, clauses used must be given in exactly the order shown in the syntax description. For example, a HAVING clause must come after any GROUP BY clause and before any ORDER BY clause. The exception is that the INTO clause can appear either as shown in the syntax description or immediately following the select_expr list. For more information about INTO, see Section 13.2.9.1, “SELECT ... INTO Syntax”.

The list of select_expr terms comprises the select list that indicates which columns to retrieve. Terms specify a column or expression or can use *-shorthand:

  • A select list consisting only of a single unqualified * can be used as shorthand to select all columns from all tables:

    SELECT * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ...
    
  • tbl_name.* can be used as a qualified shorthand to select all columns from the named table:

    SELECT t1.*, t2.* FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 ...
    
  • Use of an unqualified * with other items in the select list may produce a parse error. To avoid this problem, use a qualified tbl_name.* reference

    SELECT AVG(score), t1.* FROM t1 ...
    

The following list provides additional information about other SELECT clauses:

  • A select_expr can be given an alias using AS alias_name. The alias is used as the expression's column name and can be used in GROUP BY, ORDER BY, or HAVING clauses. For example:

    SELECT CONCAT(last_name,', ',first_name) AS full_name
      FROM mytable ORDER BY full_name;
    

    The AS keyword is optional when aliasing a select_expr with an identifier. The preceding example could have been written like this:

    SELECT CONCAT(last_name,', ',first_name) full_name
      FROM mytable ORDER BY full_name;
    

    However, because the AS is optional, a subtle problem can occur if you forget the comma between two select_expr expressions: MySQL interprets the second as an alias name. For example, in the following statement, columnb is treated as an alias name:

    SELECT columna columnb FROM mytable;
    

    For this reason, it is good practice to be in the habit of using AS explicitly when specifying column aliases.

    It is not permissible to refer to a column alias in a WHERE clause, because the column value might not yet be determined when the WHERE clause is executed. See Section B.5.4.4, “Problems with Column Aliases”.

  • The FROM table_references clause indicates the table or tables from which to retrieve rows. If you name more than one table, you are performing a join. For information on join syntax, see Section 13.2.9.2, “JOIN Syntax”. For each table specified, you can optionally specify an alias.

    tbl_name [[AS] alias] [index_hint]
    

    The use of index hints provides the optimizer with information about how to choose indexes during query processing. For a description of the syntax for specifying these hints, see Section 8.9.4, “Index Hints”.

    You can use SET max_seeks_for_key=value as an alternative way to force MySQL to prefer key scans instead of table scans. See Section 5.1.5, “Server System Variables”.

  • You can refer to a table within the default database as tbl_name, or as db_name.tbl_name to specify a database explicitly. You can refer to a column as col_name, tbl_name.col_name, or db_name.tbl_name.col_name. You need not specify a tbl_name or db_name.tbl_name prefix for a column reference unless the reference would be ambiguous. See Section 9.2.1, “Identifier Qualifiers”, for examples of ambiguity that require the more explicit column reference forms.

  • A table reference can be aliased using tbl_name AS alias_name or tbl_name alias_name:

    SELECT t1.name, t2.salary FROM employee AS t1, info AS t2
      WHERE t1.name = t2.name;
    
    SELECT t1.name, t2.salary FROM employee t1, info t2
      WHERE t1.name = t2.name;
    
  • Columns selected for output can be referred to in ORDER BY and GROUP BY clauses using column names, column aliases, or column positions. Column positions are integers and begin with 1:

    SELECT college, region, seed FROM tournament
      ORDER BY region, seed;
    
    SELECT college, region AS r, seed AS s FROM tournament
      ORDER BY r, s;
    
    SELECT college, region, seed FROM tournament
      ORDER BY 2, 3;
    

    To sort in reverse order, add the DESC (descending) keyword to the name of the column in the ORDER BY clause that you are sorting by. The default is ascending order; this can be specified explicitly using the ASC keyword.

    If ORDER BY occurs within a subquery and also is applied in the outer query, the outermost ORDER BY takes precedence. For example, results for the following statement are sorted in descending order, not ascending order:

    (SELECT ... ORDER BY a) ORDER BY a DESC;
    

    Use of column positions is deprecated because the syntax has been removed from the SQL standard.

  • If you use GROUP BY, output rows are sorted according to the GROUP BY columns as if you had an ORDER BY for the same columns. To avoid the overhead of sorting that GROUP BY produces, add ORDER BY NULL:

    SELECT a, COUNT(b) FROM test_table GROUP BY a ORDER BY NULL;
    

    Relying on implicit GROUP BY sorting (that is, sorting in the absence of ASC or DESC designators) is deprecated. To produce a given sort order, use explicit ASC or DESC designators for GROUP BY columns or provide an ORDER BY clause.

  • When you use ORDER BY or GROUP BY to sort a column in a SELECT, the server sorts values using only the initial number of bytes indicated by the max_sort_length system variable.

  • MySQL extends the GROUP BY clause so that you can also specify ASC and DESC after columns named in the clause:

    SELECT a, COUNT(b) FROM test_table GROUP BY a DESC;
    
  • MySQL extends the use of GROUP BY to permit selecting fields that are not mentioned in the GROUP BY clause. If you are not getting the results that you expect from your query, please read the description of GROUP BY found in Section 12.19, “Aggregate (GROUP BY) Functions”.

  • GROUP BY permits a WITH ROLLUP modifier. See Section 12.19.2, “GROUP BY Modifiers”.

  • The HAVING clause is applied nearly last, just before items are sent to the client, with no optimization. (LIMIT is applied after HAVING.)

    The SQL standard requires that HAVING must reference only columns in the GROUP BY clause or columns used in aggregate functions. However, MySQL supports an extension to this behavior, and permits HAVING to refer to columns in the SELECT list and columns in outer subqueries as well.

    If the HAVING clause refers to a column that is ambiguous, a warning occurs. In the following statement, col2 is ambiguous because it is used as both an alias and a column name:

    SELECT COUNT(col1) AS col2 FROM t GROUP BY col2 HAVING col2 = 2;
    

    Preference is given to standard SQL behavior, so if a HAVING column name is used both in GROUP BY and as an aliased column in the output column list, preference is given to the column in the GROUP BY column.

  • Do not use HAVING for items that should be in the WHERE clause. For example, do not write the following:

    SELECT col_name FROM tbl_name HAVING col_name > 0;
    

    Write this instead:

    SELECT col_name FROM tbl_name WHERE col_name > 0;
    
  • The HAVING clause can refer to aggregate functions, which the WHERE clause cannot:

    SELECT user, MAX(salary) FROM users
      GROUP BY user HAVING MAX(salary) > 10;
    

    (This did not work in some older versions of MySQL.)

  • MySQL permits duplicate column names. That is, there can be more than one select_expr with the same name. This is an extension to standard SQL. Because MySQL also permits GROUP BY and HAVING to refer to select_expr values, this can result in an ambiguity:

    SELECT 12 AS a, a FROM t GROUP BY a;
    

    In that statement, both columns have the name a. To ensure that the correct column is used for grouping, use different names for each select_expr.

  • MySQL resolves unqualified column or alias references in ORDER BY clauses by searching in the select_expr values, then in the columns of the tables in the FROM clause. For GROUP BY or HAVING clauses, it searches the FROM clause before searching in the select_expr values. (For GROUP BY and HAVING, this differs from the pre-MySQL 5.0 behavior that used the same rules as for ORDER BY.)

  • The LIMIT clause can be used to constrain the number of rows returned by the SELECT statement. LIMIT takes one or two numeric arguments, which must both be nonnegative integer constants, with these exceptions:

    • Within prepared statements, LIMIT parameters can be specified using ? placeholder markers.

    • Within stored programs, LIMIT parameters can be specified using integer-valued routine parameters or local variables.

    With two arguments, the first argument specifies the offset of the first row to return, and the second specifies the maximum number of rows to return. The offset of the initial row is 0 (not 1):

    SELECT * FROM tbl LIMIT 5,10;  # Retrieve rows 6-15
    

    To retrieve all rows from a certain offset up to the end of the result set, you can use some large number for the second parameter. This statement retrieves all rows from the 96th row to the last:

    SELECT * FROM tbl LIMIT 95,18446744073709551615;
    

    With one argument, the value specifies the number of rows to return from the beginning of the result set:

    SELECT * FROM tbl LIMIT 5;     # Retrieve first 5 rows
    

    In other words, LIMIT row_count is equivalent to LIMIT 0, row_count.

    For prepared statements, you can use placeholders. The following statements will return one row from the tbl table:

    SET @a=1;
    PREPARE STMT FROM 'SELECT * FROM tbl LIMIT ?';
    EXECUTE STMT USING @a;
    

    The following statements will return the second to sixth row from the tbl table:

    SET @skip=1; SET @numrows=5;
    PREPARE STMT FROM 'SELECT * FROM tbl LIMIT ?, ?';
    EXECUTE STMT USING @skip, @numrows;
    

    For compatibility with PostgreSQL, MySQL also supports the LIMIT row_count OFFSET offset syntax.

    If LIMIT occurs within a subquery and also is applied in the outer query, the outermost LIMIT takes precedence. For example, the following statement produces two rows, not one:

    (SELECT ... LIMIT 1) LIMIT 2;
    
  • A PROCEDURE clause names a procedure that should process the data in the result set. For an example, see Section 8.4.2.4, “Using PROCEDURE ANALYSE”, which describes ANALYSE, a procedure that can be used to obtain suggestions for optimal column data types that may help reduce table sizes.

    A PROCEDURE clause is not permitted in a UNION statement.

    Note

    PROCEDURE syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.18, and is removed in MySQL 8.0.

  • The SELECT ... INTO form of SELECT enables the query result to be written to a file or stored in variables. For more information, see Section 13.2.9.1, “SELECT ... INTO Syntax”.

  • If you use FOR UPDATE with a storage engine that uses page or row locks, rows examined by the query are write-locked until the end of the current transaction. Using LOCK IN SHARE MODE sets a shared lock that permits other transactions to read the examined rows but not to update or delete them. See Section 14.5.2.4, “Locking Reads”.

    In addition, you cannot use FOR UPDATE as part of the SELECT in a statement such as CREATE TABLE new_table SELECT ... FROM old_table .... (If you attempt to do so, the statement is rejected with the error Can't update table 'old_table' while 'new_table' is being created.) This is a change in behavior from MySQL 5.5 and earlier, which permitted CREATE TABLE ... SELECT statements to make changes in tables other than the table being created.

Following the SELECT keyword, you can use a number of modifiers that affect the operation of the statement. HIGH_PRIORITY, STRAIGHT_JOIN, and modifiers beginning with SQL_ are MySQL extensions to standard SQL.

  • The ALL and DISTINCT modifiers specify whether duplicate rows should be returned. ALL (the default) specifies that all matching rows should be returned, including duplicates. DISTINCT specifies removal of duplicate rows from the result set. It is an error to specify both modifiers. DISTINCTROW is a synonym for DISTINCT.

  • HIGH_PRIORITY gives the SELECT higher priority than a statement that updates a table. You should use this only for queries that are very fast and must be done at once. A SELECT HIGH_PRIORITY query that is issued while the table is locked for reading runs even if there is an update statement waiting for the table to be free. This affects only storage engines that use only table-level locking (such as MyISAM, MEMORY, and MERGE).

    HIGH_PRIORITY cannot be used with SELECT statements that are part of a UNION.

  • STRAIGHT_JOIN forces the optimizer to join the tables in the order in which they are listed in the FROM clause. You can use this to speed up a query if the optimizer joins the tables in nonoptimal order. STRAIGHT_JOIN also can be used in the table_references list. See Section 13.2.9.2, “JOIN Syntax”.

    STRAIGHT_JOIN does not apply to any table that the optimizer treats as a const or system table. Such a table produces a single row, is read during the optimization phase of query execution, and references to its columns are replaced with the appropriate column values before query execution proceeds. These tables will appear first in the query plan displayed by EXPLAIN. See Section 8.8.1, “Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN”. This exception may not apply to const or system tables that are used on the NULL-complemented side of an outer join (that is, the right-side table of a LEFT JOIN or the left-side table of a RIGHT JOIN.

  • SQL_BIG_RESULT or SQL_SMALL_RESULT can be used with GROUP BY or DISTINCT to tell the optimizer that the result set has many rows or is small, respectively. For SQL_BIG_RESULT, MySQL directly uses disk-based temporary tables if needed, and prefers sorting to using a temporary table with a key on the GROUP BY elements. For SQL_SMALL_RESULT, MySQL uses fast temporary tables to store the resulting table instead of using sorting. This should not normally be needed.

  • SQL_BUFFER_RESULT forces the result to be put into a temporary table. This helps MySQL free the table locks early and helps in cases where it takes a long time to send the result set to the client. This modifier can be used only for top-level SELECT statements, not for subqueries or following UNION.

  • SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS tells MySQL to calculate how many rows there would be in the result set, disregarding any LIMIT clause. The number of rows can then be retrieved with SELECT FOUND_ROWS(). See Section 12.14, “Information Functions”.

  • The SQL_CACHE and SQL_NO_CACHE modifiers affect caching of query results in the query cache (see Section 8.10.3, “The MySQL Query Cache”). SQL_CACHE tells MySQL to store the result in the query cache if it is cacheable and the value of the query_cache_type system variable is 2 or DEMAND. With SQL_NO_CACHE, the server does not use the query cache. It neither checks the query cache to see whether the result is already cached, nor does it cache the query result.

    These two modifiers are mutually exclusive and an error occurs if they are both specified. Also, these modifiers are not permitted in subqueries (including subqueries in the FROM clause), and SELECT statements in unions other than the first SELECT.

    For views, SQL_NO_CACHE applies if it appears in any SELECT in the query. For a cacheable query, SQL_CACHE applies if it appears in the first SELECT of a view referred to by the query.

    Note

    The query cache is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.20, and is removed in MySQL 8.0. Deprecation includes SQL_CACHE and SQL_NO_CACHE.

A SELECT from a partitioned table using a storage engine such as MyISAM that employs table-level locks locks only those partitions containing rows that match the SELECT statement WHERE clause. (This does not occur with storage engines such as InnoDB that employ row-level locking.) For more information, see Section 22.6.4, “Partitioning and Locking”.

13.2.9.1 SELECT ... INTO Syntax

The SELECT ... INTO form of SELECT enables a query result to be stored in variables or written to a file:

  • SELECT ... INTO var_list selects column values and stores them into variables.

  • SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE writes the selected rows to a file. Column and line terminators can be specified to produce a specific output format.

  • SELECT ... INTO DUMPFILE writes a single row to a file without any formatting.

The SELECT syntax description (see Section 13.2.9, “SELECT Syntax”) shows the INTO clause near the end of the statement. It is also possible to use INTO immediately following the select_expr list.

An INTO clause should not be used in a nested SELECT because such a SELECT must return its result to the outer context.

The INTO clause can name a list of one or more variables, which can be user-defined variables, stored procedure or function parameters, or stored program local variables. (Within a prepared SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE statement, only user-defined variables are permitted;see Section 13.6.4.2, “Local Variable Scope and Resolution”.)

The selected values are assigned to the variables. The number of variables must match the number of columns. The query should return a single row. If the query returns no rows, a warning with error code 1329 occurs (No data), and the variable values remain unchanged. If the query returns multiple rows, error 1172 occurs (Result consisted of more than one row). If it is possible that the statement may retrieve multiple rows, you can use LIMIT 1 to limit the result set to a single row.

SELECT id, data INTO @x, @y FROM test.t1 LIMIT 1;

User variable names are not case sensitive. See Section 9.4, “User-Defined Variables”.

The SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE 'file_name' form of SELECT writes the selected rows to a file. The file is created on the server host, so you must have the FILE privilege to use this syntax. file_name cannot be an existing file, which among other things prevents files such as /etc/passwd and database tables from being destroyed. The character_set_filesystem system variable controls the interpretation of the file name.

The SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE statement is intended primarily to let you very quickly dump a table to a text file on the server machine. If you want to create the resulting file on some other host than the server host, you normally cannot use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE since there is no way to write a path to the file relative to the server host's file system.

However, if the MySQL client software is installed on the remote machine, you can instead use a client command such as mysql -e "SELECT ..." > file_name to generate the file on the client host.

It is also possible to create the resulting file on a different host other than the server host, if the location of the file on the remote host can be accessed using a network-mapped path on the server's file system. In this case, the presence of mysql (or some other MySQL client program) is not required on the target host.

SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE is the complement of LOAD DATA INFILE. Column values are written converted to the character set specified in the CHARACTER SET clause. If no such clause is present, values are dumped using the binary character set. In effect, there is no character set conversion. If a result set contains columns in several character sets, the output data file will as well and you may not be able to reload the file correctly.

The syntax for the export_options part of the statement consists of the same FIELDS and LINES clauses that are used with the LOAD DATA INFILE statement. See Section 13.2.6, “LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax”, for information about the FIELDS and LINES clauses, including their default values and permissible values.

FIELDS ESCAPED BY controls how to write special characters. If the FIELDS ESCAPED BY character is not empty, it is used when necessary to avoid ambiguity as a prefix that precedes following characters on output:

  • The FIELDS ESCAPED BY character

  • The FIELDS [OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY character

  • The first character of the FIELDS TERMINATED BY and LINES TERMINATED BY values

  • ASCII NUL (the zero-valued byte; what is actually written following the escape character is ASCII 0, not a zero-valued byte)

The FIELDS TERMINATED BY, ENCLOSED BY, ESCAPED BY, or LINES TERMINATED BY characters must be escaped so that you can read the file back in reliably. ASCII NUL is escaped to make it easier to view with some pagers.

The resulting file does not have to conform to SQL syntax, so nothing else need be escaped.

If the FIELDS ESCAPED BY character is empty, no characters are escaped and NULL is output as NULL, not \N. It is probably not a good idea to specify an empty escape character, particularly if field values in your data contain any of the characters in the list just given.

Here is an example that produces a file in the comma-separated values (CSV) format used by many programs:

SELECT a,b,a+b INTO OUTFILE '/tmp/result.txt'
  FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
  LINES TERMINATED BY '\n'
  FROM test_table;

If you use INTO DUMPFILE instead of INTO OUTFILE, MySQL writes only one row into the file, without any column or line termination and without performing any escape processing. This is useful if you want to store a BLOB value in a file.

Note

Any file created by INTO OUTFILE or INTO DUMPFILE is writable by all users on the server host. The reason for this is that the MySQL server cannot create a file that is owned by anyone other than the user under whose account it is running. (You should never run mysqld as root for this and other reasons.) The file thus must be world-writable so that you can manipulate its contents.

If the secure_file_priv system variable is set to a nonempty directory name, the file to be written must be located in that directory.

In the context of SELECT ... INTO statements that occur as part of events executed by the Event Scheduler, diagnostics messages (not only errors, but also warnings) are written to the error log, and, on Windows, to the application event log. For additional information, see Section 23.4.5, “Event Scheduler Status”.

13.2.9.2 JOIN Syntax

MySQL supports the following JOIN syntax for the table_references part of SELECT statements and multiple-table DELETE and UPDATE statements:

table_references:
    escaped_table_reference [, escaped_table_reference] ...

escaped_table_reference:
    table_reference
  | { OJ table_reference }

table_reference:
    table_factor
  | join_table

table_factor:
    tbl_name [PARTITION (partition_names)]
        [[AS] alias] [index_hint_list]
  | table_subquery [AS] alias
  | ( table_references )

join_table:
    table_reference [INNER | CROSS] JOIN table_factor [join_condition]
  | table_reference STRAIGHT_JOIN table_factor
  | table_reference STRAIGHT_JOIN table_factor ON conditional_expr
  | table_reference {LEFT|RIGHT} [OUTER] JOIN table_reference join_condition
  | table_reference NATURAL [{LEFT|RIGHT} [OUTER]] JOIN table_factor

join_condition:
    ON conditional_expr
  | USING (column_list)

index_hint_list:
    index_hint [, index_hint] ...

index_hint:
    USE {INDEX|KEY}
      [FOR {JOIN|ORDER BY|GROUP BY}] ([index_list])
  | IGNORE {INDEX|KEY}
      [FOR {JOIN|ORDER BY|GROUP BY}] (index_list)
  | FORCE {INDEX|KEY}
      [FOR {JOIN|ORDER BY|GROUP BY}] (index_list)

index_list:
    index_name [, index_name] ...

A table reference is also known as a join expression.

A table reference (when it refers to a partitioned table) may contain a PARTITION option, including a list of comma-separated partitions, subpartitions, or both. This option follows the name of the table and precedes any alias declaration. The effect of this option is that rows are selected only from the listed partitions or subpartitions. Any partitions or subpartitions not named in the list are ignored. For more information and examples, see Section 22.5, “Partition Selection”.

The syntax of table_factor is extended in MySQL in comparison with standard SQL. The standard accepts only table_reference, not a list of them inside a pair of parentheses.

This is a conservative extension if each comma in a list of table_reference items is considered as equivalent to an inner join. For example:

SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT JOIN (t2, t3, t4)
                 ON (t2.a = t1.a AND t3.b = t1.b AND t4.c = t1.c)

is equivalent to:

SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT JOIN (t2 CROSS JOIN t3 CROSS JOIN t4)
                 ON (t2.a = t1.a AND t3.b = t1.b AND t4.c = t1.c)

In MySQL, JOIN, CROSS JOIN, and INNER JOIN are syntactic equivalents (they can replace each other). In standard SQL, they are not equivalent. INNER JOIN is used with an ON clause, CROSS JOIN is used otherwise.

In general, parentheses can be ignored in join expressions containing only inner join operations. MySQL also supports nested joins. See Section 8.2.1.7, “Nested Join Optimization”.

Index hints can be specified to affect how the MySQL optimizer makes use of indexes. For more information, see Section 8.9.4, “Index Hints”. Optimizer hints and the optimizer_switch system variable are other ways to influence optimizer use of indexes. See Section 8.9.2, “Optimizer Hints”, and Section 8.9.3, “Switchable Optimizations”.

The following list describes general factors to take into account when writing joins:

  • A table reference can be aliased using tbl_name AS alias_name or tbl_name alias_name:

    SELECT t1.name, t2.salary
      FROM employee AS t1 INNER JOIN info AS t2 ON t1.name = t2.name;
    
    SELECT t1.name, t2.salary
      FROM employee t1 INNER JOIN info t2 ON t1.name = t2.name;
    
  • A table_subquery is also known as a derived table or subquery in the FROM clause. See Section 13.2.10.8, “Derived Tables (Subqueries in the FROM Clause)”. Such subqueries must include an alias to give the subquery result a table name. A trivial example follows:

    SELECT * FROM (SELECT 1, 2, 3) AS t1;
    
  • INNER JOIN and , (comma) are semantically equivalent in the absence of a join condition: both produce a Cartesian product between the specified tables (that is, each and every row in the first table is joined to each and every row in the second table).

    However, the precedence of the comma operator is less than that of INNER JOIN, CROSS JOIN, LEFT JOIN, and so on. If you mix comma joins with the other join types when there is a join condition, an error of the form Unknown column 'col_name' in 'on clause' may occur. Information about dealing with this problem is given later in this section.

  • The conditional_expr used with ON is any conditional expression of the form that can be used in a WHERE clause. Generally, the ON clause serves for conditions that specify how to join tables, and the WHERE clause restricts which rows to include in the result set.

  • If there is no matching row for the right table in the ON or USING part in a LEFT JOIN, a row with all columns set to NULL is used for the right table. You can use this fact to find rows in a table that have no counterpart in another table:

    SELECT left_tbl.*
      FROM left_tbl LEFT JOIN right_tbl ON left_tbl.id = right_tbl.id
      WHERE right_tbl.id IS NULL;
    

    This example finds all rows in left_tbl with an id value that is not present in right_tbl (that is, all rows in left_tbl with no corresponding row in right_tbl). See Section 8.2.1.8, “Left Join and Right Join Optimization”.

  • The USING(column_list) clause names a list of columns that must exist in both tables. If tables a and b both contain columns c1, c2, and c3, the following join compares corresponding columns from the two tables:

    a LEFT JOIN b USING (c1, c2, c3)
    
  • The NATURAL [LEFT] JOIN of two tables is defined to be semantically equivalent to an INNER JOIN or a LEFT JOIN with a USING clause that names all columns that exist in both tables.

  • RIGHT JOIN works analogously to LEFT JOIN. To keep code portable across databases, it is recommended that you use LEFT JOIN instead of RIGHT JOIN.

  • The { OJ ... } syntax shown in the join syntax description exists only for compatibility with ODBC. The curly braces in the syntax should be written literally; they are not metasyntax as used elsewhere in syntax descriptions.

    SELECT left_tbl.*
        FROM { OJ left_tbl LEFT OUTER JOIN right_tbl ON left_tbl.id = right_tbl.id }
        WHERE right_tbl.id IS NULL;
    

    You can use other types of joins within { OJ ... }, such as INNER JOIN or RIGHT OUTER JOIN. This helps with compatibility with some third-party applications, but is not official ODBC syntax.

  • STRAIGHT_JOIN is similar to JOIN, except that the left table is always read before the right table. This can be used for those (few) cases for which the join optimizer processes the tables in a suboptimal order.

Some join examples:

SELECT * FROM table1, table2;

SELECT * FROM table1 INNER JOIN table2 ON table1.id = table2.id;

SELECT * FROM table1 LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.id = table2.id;

SELECT * FROM table1 LEFT JOIN table2 USING (id);

SELECT * FROM table1 LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.id = table2.id
  LEFT JOIN table3 ON table2.id = table3.id;

Natural joins and joins with USING, including outer join variants, are processed according to the SQL:2003 standard:

  • Redundant columns of a NATURAL join do not appear. Consider this set of statements:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (i INT, j INT);
    CREATE TABLE t2 (k INT, j INT);
    INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1, 1);
    INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 1);
    SELECT * FROM t1 NATURAL JOIN t2;
    SELECT * FROM t1 JOIN t2 USING (j);
    

    In the first SELECT statement, column j appears in both tables and thus becomes a join column, so, according to standard SQL, it should appear only once in the output, not twice. Similarly, in the second SELECT statement, column j is named in the USING clause and should appear only once in the output, not twice.

    Thus, the statements produce this output:

    +------+------+------+
    | j    | i    | k    |
    +------+------+------+
    |    1 |    1 |    1 |
    +------+------+------+
    +------+------+------+
    | j    | i    | k    |
    +------+------+------+
    |    1 |    1 |    1 |
    +------+------+------+
    

    Redundant column elimination and column ordering occurs according to standard SQL, producing this display order:

    • First, coalesced common columns of the two joined tables, in the order in which they occur in the first table

    • Second, columns unique to the first table, in order in which they occur in that table

    • Third, columns unique to the second table, in order in which they occur in that table

    The single result column that replaces two common columns is defined using the coalesce operation. That is, for two t1.a and t2.a the resulting single join column a is defined as a = COALESCE(t1.a, t2.a), where:

    COALESCE(x, y) = (CASE WHEN x IS NOT NULL THEN x ELSE y END)
    

    If the join operation is any other join, the result columns of the join consist of the concatenation of all columns of the joined tables.

    A consequence of the definition of coalesced columns is that, for outer joins, the coalesced column contains the value of the non-NULL column if one of the two columns is always NULL. If neither or both columns are NULL, both common columns have the same value, so it doesn't matter which one is chosen as the value of the coalesced column. A simple way to interpret this is to consider that a coalesced column of an outer join is represented by the common column of the inner table of a JOIN. Suppose that the tables t1(a, b) and t2(a, c) have the following contents:

    t1    t2
    ----  ----
    1 x   2 z
    2 y   3 w
    

    Then, for this join, column a contains the values of t1.a:

    mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 NATURAL LEFT JOIN t2;
    +------+------+------+
    | a    | b    | c    |
    +------+------+------+
    |    1 | x    | NULL |
    |    2 | y    | z    |
    +------+------+------+
    

    By contrast, for this join, column a contains the values of t2.a.

    mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 NATURAL RIGHT JOIN t2;
    +------+------+------+
    | a    | c    | b    |
    +------+------+------+
    |    2 | z    | y    |
    |    3 | w    | NULL |
    +------+------+------+
    

    Compare those results to the otherwise equivalent queries with JOIN ... ON:

    mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON (t1.a = t2.a);
    +------+------+------+------+
    | a    | b    | a    | c    |
    +------+------+------+------+
    |    1 | x    | NULL | NULL |
    |    2 | y    |    2 | z    |
    +------+------+------+------+
    
    mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 RIGHT JOIN t2 ON (t1.a = t2.a);
    +------+------+------+------+
    | a    | b    | a    | c    |
    +------+------+------+------+
    |    2 | y    |    2 | z    |
    | NULL | NULL |    3 | w    |
    +------+------+------+------+
    
  • A USING clause can be rewritten as an ON clause that compares corresponding columns. However, although USING and ON are similar, they are not quite the same. Consider the following two queries:

    a LEFT JOIN b USING (c1, c2, c3)
    a LEFT JOIN b ON a.c1 = b.c1 AND a.c2 = b.c2 AND a.c3 = b.c3
    

    With respect to determining which rows satisfy the join condition, both joins are semantically identical.

    With respect to determining which columns to display for SELECT * expansion, the two joins are not semantically identical. The USING join selects the coalesced value of corresponding columns, whereas the ON join selects all columns from all tables. For the USING join, SELECT * selects these values:

    COALESCE(a.c1, b.c1), COALESCE(a.c2, b.c2), COALESCE(a.c3, b.c3)
    

    For the ON join, SELECT * selects these values:

    a.c1, a.c2, a.c3, b.c1, b.c2, b.c3
    

    With an inner join, COALESCE(a.c1, b.c1) is the same as either a.c1 or b.c1 because both columns will have the same value. With an outer join (such as LEFT JOIN), one of the two columns can be NULL. That column is omitted from the result.

  • An ON clause can refer only to its operands.

    Example:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (i1 INT);
    CREATE TABLE t2 (i2 INT);
    CREATE TABLE t3 (i3 INT);
    SELECT * FROM t1 JOIN t2 ON (i1 = i3) JOIN t3;
    

    The statement fails with an Unknown column 'i3' in 'on clause' error because i3 is a column in t3, which is not an operand of the ON clause. To enable the join to be processed, rewrite the statement as follows:

    SELECT * FROM t1 JOIN t2 JOIN t3 ON (i1 = i3);
    
  • JOIN has higher precedence than the comma operator (,), so the join expression t1, t2 JOIN t3 is interpreted as (t1, (t2 JOIN t3)), not as ((t1, t2) JOIN t3). This affects statements that use an ON clause because that clause can refer only to columns in the operands of the join, and the precedence affects interpretation of what those operands are.

    Example:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (i1 INT, j1 INT);
    CREATE TABLE t2 (i2 INT, j2 INT);
    CREATE TABLE t3 (i3 INT, j3 INT);
    INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1, 1);
    INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 1);
    INSERT INTO t3 VALUES(1, 1);
    SELECT * FROM t1, t2 JOIN t3 ON (t1.i1 = t3.i3);
    

    The JOIN takes precedence over the comma operator, so the operands for the ON clause are t2 and t3. Because t1.i1 is not a column in either of the operands, the result is an Unknown column 't1.i1' in 'on clause' error.

    To enable the join to be processed, use either of these strategies:

    • Group the first two tables explicitly with parentheses so that the operands for the ON clause are (t1, t2) and t3:

      SELECT * FROM (t1, t2) JOIN t3 ON (t1.i1 = t3.i3);
      
    • Avoid the use of the comma operator and use JOIN instead:

      SELECT * FROM t1 JOIN t2 JOIN t3 ON (t1.i1 = t3.i3);
      

    The same precedence interpretation also applies to statements that mix the comma operator with INNER JOIN, CROSS JOIN, LEFT JOIN, and RIGHT JOIN, all of which have higher precedence than the comma operator.

  • A MySQL extension compared to the SQL:2003 standard is that MySQL permits you to qualify the common (coalesced) columns of NATURAL or USING joins, whereas the standard disallows that.

13.2.9.3 UNION Syntax

SELECT ...
UNION [ALL | DISTINCT] SELECT ...
[UNION [ALL | DISTINCT] SELECT ...]

UNION is used to combine the result from multiple SELECT statements into a single result set.

The column names from the first SELECT statement are used as the column names for the results returned. Selected columns listed in corresponding positions of each SELECT statement should have the same data type. (For example, the first column selected by the first statement should have the same type as the first column selected by the other statements.)

If the data types of corresponding SELECT columns do not match, the types and lengths of the columns in the UNION result take into account the values retrieved by all of the SELECT statements. For example, consider the following:

mysql> SELECT REPEAT('a',1) UNION SELECT REPEAT('b',10);
+---------------+
| REPEAT('a',1) |
+---------------+
| a             |
| bbbbbbbbbb    |
+---------------+

The SELECT statements are normal select statements, but with the following restrictions:

  • Only the last SELECT statement can use INTO OUTFILE. (However, the entire UNION result is written to the file.)

  • HIGH_PRIORITY cannot be used with SELECT statements that are part of a UNION. If you specify it for the first SELECT, it has no effect. If you specify it for any subsequent SELECT statements, a syntax error results.

The default behavior for UNION is that duplicate rows are removed from the result. The optional DISTINCT keyword has no effect other than the default because it also specifies duplicate-row removal. With the optional ALL keyword, duplicate-row removal does not occur and the result includes all matching rows from all the SELECT statements.

You can mix UNION ALL and UNION DISTINCT in the same query. Mixed UNION types are treated such that a DISTINCT union overrides any ALL union to its left. A DISTINCT union can be produced explicitly by using UNION DISTINCT or implicitly by using UNION with no following DISTINCT or ALL keyword.

To apply ORDER BY or LIMIT to an individual SELECT, place the clause inside the parentheses that enclose the SELECT:

(SELECT a FROM t1 WHERE a=10 AND B=1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10)
UNION
(SELECT a FROM t2 WHERE a=11 AND B=2 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10);
Note

Previous versions of MySQL may permit such statements without parentheses. In MySQL 5.7, the requirement for parentheses is enforced.

Use of ORDER BY for individual SELECT statements implies nothing about the order in which the rows appear in the final result because UNION by default produces an unordered set of rows. Therefore, the use of ORDER BY in this context is typically in conjunction with LIMIT, so that it is used to determine the subset of the selected rows to retrieve for the SELECT, even though it does not necessarily affect the order of those rows in the final UNION result. If ORDER BY appears without LIMIT in a SELECT, it is optimized away because it will have no effect anyway.

To use an ORDER BY or LIMIT clause to sort or limit the entire UNION result, parenthesize the individual SELECT statements and place the ORDER BY or LIMIT after the last one. The following example uses both clauses:

(SELECT a FROM t1 WHERE a=10 AND B=1)
UNION
(SELECT a FROM t2 WHERE a=11 AND B=2)
ORDER BY a LIMIT 10;

A statement without parentheses is equivalent to one parenthesized as just shown.

This kind of ORDER BY cannot use column references that include a table name (that is, names in tbl_name.col_name format). Instead, provide a column alias in the first SELECT statement and refer to the alias in the ORDER BY. (Alternatively, refer to the column in the ORDER BY using its column position. However, use of column positions is deprecated.)

Also, if a column to be sorted is aliased, the ORDER BY clause must refer to the alias, not the column name. The first of the following statements will work, but the second will fail with an Unknown column 'a' in 'order clause' error:

(SELECT a AS b FROM t) UNION (SELECT ...) ORDER BY b;
(SELECT a AS b FROM t) UNION (SELECT ...) ORDER BY a;

To cause rows in a UNION result to consist of the sets of rows retrieved by each SELECT one after the other, select an additional column in each SELECT to use as a sort column and add an ORDER BY following the last SELECT:

(SELECT 1 AS sort_col, col1a, col1b, ... FROM t1)
UNION
(SELECT 2, col2a, col2b, ... FROM t2) ORDER BY sort_col;

To additionally maintain sort order within individual SELECT results, add a secondary column to the ORDER BY clause:

(SELECT 1 AS sort_col, col1a, col1b, ... FROM t1)
UNION
(SELECT 2, col2a, col2b, ... FROM t2) ORDER BY sort_col, col1a;

Use of an additional column also enables you to determine which SELECT each row comes from. Extra columns can provide other identifying information as well, such as a string that indicates a table name.

UNION queries with an aggregate function in an ORDER BY clause are rejected with an ER_AGGREGATE_ORDER_FOR_UNION error. Example:

SELECT 1 AS foo UNION SELECT 2 ORDER BY MAX(1);

13.2.10 Subquery Syntax

A subquery is a SELECT statement within another statement.

All subquery forms and operations that the SQL standard requires are supported, as well as a few features that are MySQL-specific.

Here is an example of a subquery:

SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE column1 = (SELECT column1 FROM t2);

In this example, SELECT * FROM t1 ... is the outer query (or outer statement), and (SELECT column1 FROM t2) is the subquery. We say that the subquery is nested within the outer query, and in fact it is possible to nest subqueries within other subqueries, to a considerable depth. A subquery must always appear within parentheses.

The main advantages of subqueries are:

  • They allow queries that are structured so that it is possible to isolate each part of a statement.

  • They provide alternative ways to perform operations that would otherwise require complex joins and unions.

  • Many people find subqueries more readable than complex joins or unions. Indeed, it was the innovation of subqueries that gave people the original idea of calling the early SQL Structured Query Language.

Here is an example statement that shows the major points about subquery syntax as specified by the SQL standard and supported in MySQL:

DELETE FROM t1
WHERE s11 > ANY
 (SELECT COUNT(*) /* no hint */ FROM t2
  WHERE NOT EXISTS
   (SELECT * FROM t3
    WHERE ROW(5*t2.s1,77)=
     (SELECT 50,11*s1 FROM t4 UNION SELECT 50,77 FROM
      (SELECT * FROM t5) AS t5)));

A subquery can return a scalar (a single value), a single row, a single column, or a table (one or more rows of one or more columns). These are called scalar, column, row, and table subqueries. Subqueries that return a particular kind of result often can be used only in certain contexts, as described in the following sections.

There are few restrictions on the type of statements in which subqueries can be used. A subquery can contain many of the keywords or clauses that an ordinary SELECT can contain: DISTINCT, GROUP BY, ORDER BY, LIMIT, joins, index hints, UNION constructs, comments, functions, and so on.

A subquery's outer statement can be any one of: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SET, or DO.

In MySQL, you cannot modify a table and select from the same table in a subquery. This applies to statements such as DELETE, INSERT, REPLACE, UPDATE, and (because subqueries can be used in the SET clause) LOAD DATA INFILE.

For information about how the optimizer handles subqueries, see Section 8.2.2, “Optimizing Subqueries, Derived Tables, and View References”. For a discussion of restrictions on subquery use, including performance issues for certain forms of subquery syntax, see Section C.4, “Restrictions on Subqueries”.

13.2.10.1 The Subquery as Scalar Operand

In its simplest form, a subquery is a scalar subquery that returns a single value. A scalar subquery is a simple operand, and you can use it almost anywhere a single column value or literal is legal, and you can expect it to have those characteristics that all operands have: a data type, a length, an indication that it can be NULL, and so on. For example:

CREATE TABLE t1 (s1 INT, s2 CHAR(5) NOT NULL);
INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(100, 'abcde');
SELECT (SELECT s2 FROM t1);

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