Chapter 22 MySQL Performance Schema

Table of Contents

22.1 Performance Schema Quick Start
22.2 Performance Schema Configuration
22.2.1 Performance Schema Build Configuration
22.2.2 Performance Schema Startup Configuration
22.2.3 Performance Schema Runtime Configuration
22.3 Performance Schema Queries
22.4 Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions
22.5 Performance Schema Status Monitoring
22.6 Performance Schema General Table Characteristics
22.7 Performance Schema Table Descriptions
22.7.1 Performance Schema Table Index
22.7.2 Performance Schema Setup Tables
22.7.3 Performance Schema Instance Tables
22.7.4 Performance Schema Wait Event Tables
22.7.5 Performance Schema Summary Tables
22.7.6 Performance Schema Miscellaneous Tables
22.8 Performance Schema Option and Variable Reference
22.9 Performance Schema System Variables
22.10 Performance Schema Status Variables
22.11 Performance Schema and Plugins
22.12 Using the Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems

The MySQL Performance Schema is a feature for monitoring MySQL Server execution at a low level. The Performance Schema is available as of MySQL 5.5.3 and has these characteristics:

The Performance Schema is intended to provide access to useful information about server execution while having minimal impact on server performance. The implementation follows these design goals:

22.1 Performance Schema Quick Start

This section briefly introduces the Performance Schema with examples that show how to use it. For additional examples, see Section 22.12, “Using the Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems”.

For the Performance Schema to be available, support for it must have been configured when MySQL was built. You can verify whether this is the case by checking the server's help output. If the Performance Schema is available, the output will mention several variables with names that begin with performance_schema:

shell> mysqld --verbose --help
...
  --performance_schema
                      Enable the performance schema.
  --performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size=#
                      Number of rows in events_waits_history_long.
...

If such variables do not appear in the output, your server has not been built to support the Performance Schema. In this case, see Section 22.2, “Performance Schema Configuration”.

Assuming that the Performance Schema is available, it is disabled by default. To enable it, start the server with the performance_schema variable enabled. For example, use these lines in your my.cnf file:

[mysqld]
performance_schema

When the server starts, it sees performance_schema and attempts to initialize the Performance Schema. To verify successful initialization, use this statement:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'performance_schema';
+--------------------+-------+
| Variable_name      | Value |
+--------------------+-------+
| performance_schema | ON    |
+--------------------+-------+

A value of ON means that the Performance Schema initialized successfully and is ready for use. A value of OFF means that some error occurred. Check the server error log for information about what went wrong.

The Performance Schema is implemented as a storage engine. If this engine is available (which you should already have checked earlier), you should see it listed with a SUPPORT value of YES in the output from the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.ENGINES table or the SHOW ENGINES statement:

mysql> SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.ENGINES
    -> WHERE ENGINE='PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA'\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
      ENGINE: PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA
     SUPPORT: YES
     COMMENT: Performance Schema
TRANSACTIONS: NO
          XA: NO
  SAVEPOINTS: NO

mysql> SHOW ENGINES\G
...
      Engine: PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA
     Support: YES
     Comment: Performance Schema
Transactions: NO
          XA: NO
  Savepoints: NO
...

The PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA storage engine operates on tables in the performance_schema database. You can make performance_schema the default database so that references to its tables need not be qualified with the database name:

mysql> USE performance_schema;

Many examples in this chapter assume that performance_schema is the default database.

Performance Schema tables are stored in the performance_schema database. Information about the structure of this database and its tables can be obtained, as for any other database, by selecting from the INFORMATION_SCHEMA database or by using SHOW statements. For example, use either of these statements to see what Performance Schema tables exist:

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES
    -> WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA = 'performance_schema';
+----------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME                                   |
+----------------------------------------------+
| cond_instances                               |
| events_waits_current                         |
| events_waits_history                         |
| events_waits_history_long                    |
| events_waits_summary_by_instance             |
| events_waits_summary_by_thread_by_event_name |
| events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name    |
| file_instances                               |
| file_summary_by_event_name                   |
| file_summary_by_instance                     |
| mutex_instances                              |
| performance_timers                           |
| rwlock_instances                             |
| setup_consumers                              |
| setup_instruments                            |
| setup_timers                                 |
| threads                                      |
+----------------------------------------------+

mysql> SHOW TABLES FROM performance_schema;
+----------------------------------------------+
| Tables_in_performance_schema                 |
+----------------------------------------------+
| cond_instances                               |
| events_waits_current                         |
| events_waits_history                         |
...

The number of Performance Schema tables is expected to increase over time as implementation of additional instrumentation proceeds.

The name of the performance_schema database is lowercase, as are the names of tables within it. Queries should specify the names in lowercase.

Note

Before MySQL 5.5.8, the table names were uppercase, which caused problems on some systems for certain values of the lower_case_table_names system variable.

To see the structure of individual tables, use SHOW CREATE TABLE:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE setup_timers\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: setup_timers
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `setup_timers` (
  `NAME` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
  `TIMER_NAME` enum('CYCLE','NANOSECOND','MICROSECOND','MILLISECOND','TICK')
   NOT NULL
) ENGINE=PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8

Table structure is also available by selecting from tables such as INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS or by using statements such as SHOW COLUMNS.

Tables in the performance_schema database can be grouped according to the type of information in them: Current events, event histories and summaries, object instances, and setup (configuration) information. The following examples illustrate a few uses for these tables. For detailed information about the tables in each group, see Section 22.7, “Performance Schema Table Descriptions”.

To see what the server is doing at the moment, examine the events_waits_current table. It contains one row per thread showing each thread's most recent monitored event:

mysql> SELECT * FROM events_waits_current\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
            THREAD_ID: 0
             EVENT_ID: 5523
           EVENT_NAME: wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK::mutex
               SOURCE: thr_lock.c:525
          TIMER_START: 201660494489586
            TIMER_END: 201660494576112
           TIMER_WAIT: 86526
                SPINS: NULL
        OBJECT_SCHEMA: NULL
          OBJECT_NAME: NULL
          OBJECT_TYPE: NULL
OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN: 142270668
     NESTING_EVENT_ID: NULL
            OPERATION: lock
      NUMBER_OF_BYTES: NULL
                FLAGS: 0
...

This event indicates that thread 0 was waiting for 86,526 picoseconds to acquire a lock on THR_LOCK::mutex, a mutex in the mysys subsystem. The first few columns provide the following information:

  • The ID columns indicate which thread the event comes from and the event number.

  • EVENT_NAME indicates what was instrumented and SOURCE indicates which source file contains the instrumented code.

  • The timer columns show when the event started and stopped and how long it took. If an event is still in progress, the TIMER_END and TIMER_WAIT values are NULL. Timer values are approximate and expressed in picoseconds. For information about timers and event time collection, see Section 22.2.3.1, “Performance Schema Event Timing”.

The history tables contain the same kind of rows as the current-events table but have more rows and show what the server has been doing recently rather than currently. The events_waits_history and events_waits_history_long tables contain the most recent 10 events per thread and most recent 10,000 events, respectively. For example, to see information for recent events produced by thread 13, do this:

mysql> SELECT EVENT_ID, EVENT_NAME, TIMER_WAIT
    -> FROM events_waits_history WHERE THREAD_ID = 13
    -> ORDER BY EVENT_ID;
+----------+-----------------------------------------+------------+
| EVENT_ID | EVENT_NAME                              | TIMER_WAIT |
+----------+-----------------------------------------+------------+
|       86 | wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK::mutex  |     686322 |
|       87 | wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK_malloc  |     320535 |
|       88 | wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK_malloc  |     339390 |
|       89 | wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK_malloc  |     377100 |
|       90 | wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_plugin        |     614673 |
|       91 | wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_open          |     659925 |
|       92 | wait/synch/mutex/sql/THD::LOCK_thd_data |     494001 |
|       93 | wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK_malloc  |     222489 |
|       94 | wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK_malloc  |     214947 |
|       95 | wait/synch/mutex/mysys/LOCK_alarm       |     312993 |
+----------+-----------------------------------------+------------+

As new events are added to a history table, older events are discarded if the table is full.

Summary tables provide aggregated information for all events over time. The tables in this group summarize event data in different ways. To see which instruments have been executed the most times or have taken the most wait time, sort the events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name table on the COUNT_STAR or SUM_TIMER_WAIT column, which correspond to a COUNT(*) or SUM(TIMER_WAIT) value, respectively, calculated over all events:

mysql> SELECT EVENT_NAME, COUNT_STAR
    -> FROM events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name
    -> ORDER BY COUNT_STAR DESC LIMIT 10;
+---------------------------------------------------+------------+
| EVENT_NAME                                        | COUNT_STAR |
+---------------------------------------------------+------------+
| wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK_malloc            |       6419 |
| wait/io/file/sql/FRM                              |        452 |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_plugin                  |        337 |
| wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK_open              |        187 |
| wait/synch/mutex/mysys/LOCK_alarm                 |        147 |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/THD::LOCK_thd_data           |        115 |
| wait/io/file/myisam/kfile                         |        102 |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_global_system_variables |         89 |
| wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK::mutex            |         89 |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_open                    |         88 |
+---------------------------------------------------+------------+

mysql> SELECT EVENT_NAME, SUM_TIMER_WAIT
    -> FROM events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name
    -> ORDER BY SUM_TIMER_WAIT DESC LIMIT 10;
+----------------------------------------+----------------+
| EVENT_NAME                             | SUM_TIMER_WAIT |
+----------------------------------------+----------------+
| wait/io/file/sql/MYSQL_LOG             |     1599816582 |
| wait/synch/mutex/mysys/THR_LOCK_malloc |     1530083250 |
| wait/io/file/sql/binlog_index          |     1385291934 |
| wait/io/file/sql/FRM                   |     1292823243 |
| wait/io/file/myisam/kfile              |      411193611 |
| wait/io/file/myisam/dfile              |      322401645 |
| wait/synch/mutex/mysys/LOCK_alarm      |      145126935 |
| wait/io/file/sql/casetest              |      104324715 |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_plugin       |       86027823 |
| wait/io/file/sql/pid                   |       72591750 |
+----------------------------------------+----------------+

These results show that the THR_LOCK_malloc mutex is hot, both in terms of how often it is used and amount of time that threads wait attempting to acquire it.

Note

The THR_LOCK_malloc mutex is used only in debug builds. In production builds it is not hot because it is nonexistent.

Instance tables document what types of objects are instrumented. An instrumented object, when used by the server, produces an event. These tables provide event names and explanatory notes or status information. For example, the file_instances table lists instances of instruments for file I/O operations and their associated files:

mysql> SELECT * FROM file_instances\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
 FILE_NAME: /opt/mysql-log/60500/binlog.000007
EVENT_NAME: wait/io/file/sql/binlog
OPEN_COUNT: 0
*************************** 2. row ***************************
 FILE_NAME: /opt/mysql/60500/data/mysql/tables_priv.MYI
EVENT_NAME: wait/io/file/myisam/kfile
OPEN_COUNT: 1
*************************** 3. row ***************************
 FILE_NAME: /opt/mysql/60500/data/mysql/columns_priv.MYI
EVENT_NAME: wait/io/file/myisam/kfile
OPEN_COUNT: 1
...

Setup tables are used to configure and display monitoring characteristics. For example, to see which event timer is selected, query the setup_timers tables:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_timers;
+------+------------+
| NAME | TIMER_NAME |
+------+------------+
| wait | CYCLE      |
+------+------------+

setup_instruments lists the set of instruments for which events can be collected and shows which of them are enabled:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_instruments;
+------------------------------------------------------------+---------+-------+
| NAME                                                       | ENABLED | TIMED |
+------------------------------------------------------------+---------+-------+
...
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_global_read_lock                 | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_global_system_variables          | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_lock_db                          | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_manager                          | YES     | YES   |
...
| wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_grant                           | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOGGER::LOCK_logger                  | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_sys_init_connect                | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_sys_init_slave                  | YES     | YES   |
...
| wait/io/file/sql/binlog                                    | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/sql/binlog_index                              | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/sql/casetest                                  | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/sql/dbopt                                     | YES     | YES   |
...

To understand how to interpret instrument names, see Section 22.4, “Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions”.

To control whether events are collected for an instrument, set its ENABLED value to YES or NO. For example:

mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments SET ENABLED = 'NO'
    -> WHERE NAME = 'wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_mysql_create_db';

The Performance Schema uses collected events to update tables in the performance_schema database, which act as consumers of event information. The setup_consumers table lists the available consumers and shows which of them are enabled:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_consumers;
+----------------------------------------------+---------+
| NAME                                         | ENABLED |
+----------------------------------------------+---------+
| events_waits_current                         | YES     |
| events_waits_history                         | YES     |
| events_waits_history_long                    | YES     |
| events_waits_summary_by_thread_by_event_name | YES     |
| events_waits_summary_by_event_name           | YES     |
| events_waits_summary_by_instance             | YES     |
| file_summary_by_event_name                   | YES     |
| file_summary_by_instance                     | YES     |
+----------------------------------------------+---------+

To control whether the Performance Schema maintains a consumer as a destination for event information, set its ENABLED value.

For more information about the setup tables and how to use them to control event collection, see Section 22.2.3.2, “Performance Schema Event Filtering”.

There are some miscellaneous tables that do not fall into any of the previous groups. For example, performance_timers lists the available event timers and their characteristics. For information about timers, see Section 22.2.3.1, “Performance Schema Event Timing”.

22.2 Performance Schema Configuration

To use the MySQL Performance Schema, these configuration considerations apply:

22.2.1 Performance Schema Build Configuration

For the Performance Schema to be available, it must be configured into the MySQL server at build time. Binary MySQL distributions provided by Oracle Corporation are configured to support the Performance Schema. If you use a binary MySQL distribution from another provider, check with the provider whether the distribution has been appropriately configured.

If you build MySQL from a source distribution, enable the Performance Schema by running CMake with the WITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE option enabled:

shell> cmake . -DWITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

Configuring MySQL with the -DWITHOUT_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 option prevents inclusion of the Performance Schema, so if you want it included, do not use this option. See Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

If you install MySQL over a previous installation that was configured without the Performance Schema (or with an older version of the Performance Schema that may not have all the current tables), run mysql_upgrade after starting the server to ensure that the performance_schema database exists with all current tables. Then restart the server. One indication that you need to do this is the presence of messages such as the following in the error log:

[ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'events_waits_history'
has the wrong structure
[ERROR] Native table 'performance_schema'.'events_waits_history_long'
has the wrong structure
...

To verify whether a server was built with Performance Schema support, check its help output. If the Performance Schema is available, the output will mention several variables with names that begin with performance_schema:

shell> mysqld --verbose --help
...
  --performance_schema
                      Enable the performance schema.
  --performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size=#
                      Number of rows in events_waits_history_long.
...

You can also connect to the server and look for a line that names the PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA storage engine in the output from SHOW ENGINES:

mysql> SHOW ENGINES\G
...
      Engine: PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA
     Support: YES
     Comment: Performance Schema
Transactions: NO
          XA: NO
  Savepoints: NO
...

If the Performance Schema was not configured into the server at build time, no row for PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA will appear in the output from SHOW ENGINES. You might see performance_schema listed in the output from SHOW DATABASES, but it will have no tables and you will not be able to use it.

A line for PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA in the SHOW ENGINES output means that the Performance Schema is available, not that it is enabled. To enable it, you must do so at server startup, as described in the next section.

22.2.2 Performance Schema Startup Configuration

The Performance Schema is disabled by default. To enable it, start the server with the performance_schema variable enabled. For example, use these lines in your my.cnf file:

[mysqld]
performance_schema

If the server is unable to allocate any internal buffer during Performance Schema initialization, the Performance Schema disables itself and sets performance_schema to OFF, and the server runs without instrumentation.

The Performance Schema includes several system variables that provide configuration information:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'perf%';
+---------------------------------------------------+---------+
| Variable_name                                     | Value   |
+---------------------------------------------------+---------+
| performance_schema                                | ON      |
| performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size | 10000   |
| performance_schema_events_waits_history_size      | 10      |
| performance_schema_max_cond_classes               | 80      |
| performance_schema_max_cond_instances             | 1000    |
| performance_schema_max_file_classes               | 50      |
| performance_schema_max_file_handles               | 32768   |
| performance_schema_max_file_instances             | 10000   |
| performance_schema_max_mutex_classes              | 200     |
| performance_schema_max_mutex_instances            | 1000000 |
| performance_schema_max_rwlock_classes             | 30      |
| performance_schema_max_rwlock_instances           | 1000000 |
| performance_schema_max_table_handles              | 100000  |
| performance_schema_max_table_instances            | 50000   |
| performance_schema_max_thread_classes             | 50      |
| performance_schema_max_thread_instances           | 1000    |
+---------------------------------------------------+---------+

The performance_schema variable is ON or OFF to indicate whether the Performance Schema is enabled or disabled. The other variables indicate table sizes (number of rows) or memory allocation values.

Note

With the Performance Schema enabled, the number of Performance Schema instances affects the server memory footprint, perhaps to a large extent. It may be necessary to tune the values of Performance Schema system variables to find the number of instances that balances insufficient instrumentation against excessive memory consumption.

To change the value of Performance Schema system variables, set them at server startup. For example, put the following lines in a my.cnf file to change the sizes of the history tables:

[mysqld]
performance_schema
performance_schema_events_waits_history_size=20
performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size=15000

22.2.3 Performance Schema Runtime Configuration

Performance Schema setup tables contain information about monitoring configuration:

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES
    -> WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA = 'performance_schema'
    -> AND TABLE_NAME LIKE 'setup%';
+-------------------+
| TABLE_NAME        |
+-------------------+
| setup_consumers   |
| setup_instruments |
| setup_timers      |
+-------------------+

You can examine the contents of these tables to obtain information about Performance Schema monitoring characteristics. If you have the UPDATE privilege, you can change Performance Schema operation by modifying setup tables to affect how monitoring occurs. For additional details about these tables, see Section 22.7.2, “Performance Schema Setup Tables”.

To see which event timer is selected, query the setup_timers tables:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_timers;
+------+------------+
| NAME | TIMER_NAME |
+------+------------+
| wait | CYCLE      |
+------+------------+

The NAME value indicates the type of instrument to which the timer applies, and TIMER_NAME indicates which timer applies to those instruments. The timer applies to instruments where their name begins with a component matching the NAME value. Currently, there are only wait instruments, so this table has only one row and the timer applies to all instruments.

To change the timer, update the NAME value. For example, to use the NANOSECOND timer:

mysql> UPDATE setup_timers SET TIMER_NAME = 'NANOSECOND'
    -> WHERE NAME = 'wait';

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_timers;
+------+------------+
| NAME | TIMER_NAME |
+------+------------+
| wait | NANOSECOND |
+------+------------+

For discussion of timers, see Section 22.2.3.1, “Performance Schema Event Timing”.

The setup_instruments and setup_consumers tables list the instruments for which events can be collected and the types of consumers for which event information actually is collected, respectively. Section 22.2.3.2, “Performance Schema Event Filtering”, discusses how you can modify these tables to affect event collection.

If there are Performance Schema configuration changes that must be made at runtime using SQL statements and you would like these changes to take effect each time the server starts, put the statements in a file and start the server with the --init-file=file_name option. This strategy can also be useful if you have multiple monitoring configurations, each tailored to produce a different kind of monitoring, such as casual server health monitoring, incident investigation, application behavior troubleshooting, and so forth. Put the statements for each monitoring configuration into their own file and specify the appropriate file as the --init-file argument when you start the server.

22.2.3.1 Performance Schema Event Timing

Events are collected by means of instrumentation added to the server source code. Instruments time events, which is how the Performance Schema provides an idea of how long events take. It is also possible to configure instruments not to collect timing information. This section discusses the available timers and their characteristics, and how timing values are represented in events.

Two tables provide timer information:

Each timer row in setup_timers must refer to one of the timers listed in performance_timers.

Timers vary in precision and the amount of overhead they involve. To see what timers are available and their characteristics, check the performance_timers table:

mysql> SELECT * FROM performance_timers;
+-------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+
| TIMER_NAME  | TIMER_FREQUENCY | TIMER_RESOLUTION | TIMER_OVERHEAD |
+-------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+
| CYCLE       |      2389029850 |                1 |             72 |
| NANOSECOND  |            NULL |             NULL |           NULL |
| MICROSECOND |         1000000 |                1 |            585 |
| MILLISECOND |            1035 |                1 |            738 |
| TICK        |             101 |                1 |            630 |
+-------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+

The TIMER_NAME column shows the names of the available timers. CYCLE refers to the timer that is based on the CPU (processor) cycle counter. If the values associated with a given timer name are NULL, that timer is not supported on your platform. The rows that do not have NULL indicate which timers you can use in setup_timers.

TIMER_FREQUENCY indicates the number of timer units per second. For a cycle timer, the frequency is generally related to the CPU speed. The value shown was obtained on a system with a 2.4GHz processor. The other timers are based on fixed fractions of seconds. For TICK, the frequency may vary by platform (for example, some use 100 ticks/second, others 1000 ticks/second).

TIMER_RESOLUTION indicates the number of timer units by which timer values increase at a time. If a timer has a resolution of 10, its value increases by 10 each time.

TIMER_OVERHEAD is the minimal number of cycles of overhead to obtain one timing with the given timer. The overhead per event is twice the value displayed because the timer is invoked at the beginning and end of the event.

To see which timer is in effect or to change the timer, access the setup_timers table:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_timers;
+------+------------+
| NAME | TIMER_NAME |
+------+------------+
| wait | CYCLE      |
+------+------------+

mysql> UPDATE setup_timers SET TIMER_NAME = 'MICROSECOND'
    -> WHERE NAME = 'wait';

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_timers;
+------+-------------+
| NAME | TIMER_NAME  |
+------+-------------+
| wait | MICROSECOND |
+------+-------------+

By default, the Performance Schema uses the best timer available for each instrument type, but you can select a different one. Generally the best timer is CYCLE, which uses the CPU cycle counter whenever possible to provide high precision and low overhead.

The precision offered by the cycle counter depends on processor speed. If the processor runs at 1 GHz (one billion cycles/second) or higher, the cycle counter delivers sub-nanosecond precision. Using the cycle counter is much cheaper than getting the actual time of day. For example, the standard gettimeofday() function can take hundreds of cycles, which is an unacceptable overhead for data gathering that may occur thousands or millions of times per second.

Cycle counters also have disadvantages:

  • End users expect to see timings in wall-clock units, such as fractions of a second. Converting from cycles to fractions of seconds can be expensive. For this reason, the conversion is a quick and fairly rough multiplication operation.

  • Processor cycle rate might change, such as when a laptop goes into power-saving mode or when a CPU slows down to reduce heat generation. If a processor's cycle rate fluctuates, conversion from cycles to real-time units is subject to error.

  • Cycle counters might be unreliable or unavailable depending on the processor or the operating system. For example, on Pentiums, the instruction is RDTSC (an assembly-language rather than a C instruction) and it is theoretically possible for the operating system to prevent user-mode programs from using it.

  • Some processor details related to out-of-order execution or multiprocessor synchronization might cause the counter to seem fast or slow by up to 1000 cycles.

Currently, MySQL works with cycle counters on x386 (Windows, OS X, Linux, Solaris, and other Unix flavors), PowerPC, and IA-64.

The setup_instruments table has an ENABLED column to indicate the instruments for which to collect events. The table also has a TIMED column to indicate which instruments are timed. If an instrument is not enabled, it produces no events. If an enabled instrument is not timed, events produced by the instrument have NULL for the TIMER_START, TIMER_END, and TIMER_WAIT timer values. This in turn causes those values to be ignored when calculating the sum, minimum, maximum, and average time values in summary tables.

Within events, times are stored in picoseconds (trillionths of a second) to normalize them to a standard unit, regardless of which timer is selected. The timer used for an event is the one in effect when event timing begins. This timer is used to convert start and end values to picoseconds for storage in the event.

Modifications to the setup_timers table affect monitoring immediately. Events already in progress may use the original timer for the begin time and the new timer for the end time, which may lead to unpredictable results. If you make timer changes, you may want to use TRUNCATE TABLE to reset Performance Schema statistics.

The timer baseline (time zero) occurs at Performance Schema initialization during server startup. TIMER_START and TIMER_END values in events represent picoseconds since the baseline. TIMER_WAIT values are durations in picoseconds.

Picosecond values in events are approximate. Their accuracy is subject to the usual forms of error associated with conversion from one unit to another. If the CYCLE timer is used and the processor rate varies, there might be drift. For these reasons, it is not reasonable to look at the TIMER_START value for an event as an accurate measure of time elapsed since server startup. On the other hand, it is reasonable to use TIMER_START or TIMER_WAIT values in ORDER BY clauses to order events by start time or duration.

The choice of picoseconds in events rather than a value such as microseconds has a performance basis. One implementation goal was to show results in a uniform time unit, regardless of the timer. In an ideal world this time unit would look like a wall-clock unit and be reasonably precise; in other words, microseconds. But to convert cycles or nanoseconds to microseconds, it would be necessary to perform a division for every instrumentation. Division is expensive on many platforms. Multiplication is not expensive, so that is what is used. Therefore, the time unit is an integer multiple of the highest possible TIMER_FREQUENCY value, using a multiplier large enough to ensure that there is no major precision loss. The result is that the time unit is picoseconds. This precision is spurious, but the decision enables overhead to be minimized.

22.2.3.2 Performance Schema Event Filtering

Events are processed in a producer/consumer fashion:

  • Instrumented code is the source for events and produces events to be collected. The setup_instruments table lists the instruments for which events can be collected, whether they are enabled, and (for enabled instruments) whether to collect timing information:

    mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_instruments;
    +------------------------------------------------------------+---------+-------+
    | NAME                                                       | ENABLED | TIMED |
    +------------------------------------------------------------+---------+-------+
    ...
    | wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_global_read_lock                 | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_global_system_variables          | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_lock_db                          | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_manager                          | YES     | YES   |
    ...
    | wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_grant                           | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOGGER::LOCK_logger                  | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_sys_init_connect                | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_sys_init_slave                  | YES     | YES   |
    ...
    | wait/io/file/sql/binlog                                    | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/io/file/sql/binlog_index                              | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/io/file/sql/casetest                                  | YES     | YES   |
    | wait/io/file/sql/dbopt                                     | YES     | YES   |
    ...
    
  • Performance Schema tables are the destinations for events and consume events. The setup_consumers table lists the types of consumers to which event information can be sent:

    mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_consumers;
    +----------------------------------------------+---------+
    | NAME                                         | ENABLED |
    +----------------------------------------------+---------+
    | events_waits_current                         | YES     |
    | events_waits_history                         | YES     |
    | events_waits_history_long                    | YES     |
    | events_waits_summary_by_thread_by_event_name | YES     |
    | events_waits_summary_by_event_name           | YES     |
    | events_waits_summary_by_instance             | YES     |
    | file_summary_by_event_name                   | YES     |
    | file_summary_by_instance                     | YES     |
    +----------------------------------------------+---------+
    

Filtering can be done at different stages of performance monitoring:

  • Pre-filtering. This is done by modifying Performance Schema configuration so that only certain types of events are collected from producers, and collected events update only certain consumers. To do this, enable or disable instruments or consumers. Pre-filtering is done by the Performance Schema and has a global effect that applies to all users.

    Reasons to use pre-filtering:

    • To reduce overhead. Performance Schema overhead should be minimal even with all instruments enabled, but perhaps you want to reduce it further. Or you do not care about timing events and want to disable the timing code to eliminate timing overhead.

    • To avoid filling the current-events or history tables with events in which you have no interest. Pre-filtering leaves more room in these tables for instances of rows for enabled instrument types. If you enable only file instruments with pre-filtering, no rows are collected for nonfile instruments. With post-filtering, nonfile events are collected, leaving fewer rows for file events.

    • To avoid maintaining some kinds of event tables. If you disable a consumer, the server does not spend time maintaining destinations for that consumer. For example, if you do not care about event histories, you can disable the history table consumers to improve performance.

  • Post-filtering. This involves the use of WHERE clauses in queries that select information from Performance Schema tables, to specify which of the available events you want to see. Post-filtering is performed on a per-user basis because individual users select which of the available events are of interest.

    Reasons to use post-filtering:

    • To avoid making decisions for individual users about which event information is of interest.

    • To use the Performance Schema to investigate a performance issue when the restrictions to impose using pre-filtering are not known in advance.

The following sections provide more detail about pre-filtering and provide guidelines for naming instruments or consumers in filtering operations. For information about writing queries to retrieve information (post-filtering), see Section 22.3, “Performance Schema Queries”.

22.2.3.3 Event Pre-Filtering

Pre-filtering is done by modifying Performance Schema configuration so that only certain types of events are collected from producers, and collected events update only certain consumers. This type of filtering is done by the Performance Schema and has a global effect that applies to all users.

Pre-filtering can be applied to either the producer or consumer stage of event processing:

  • To affect pre-filtering at the producer stage, modify the setup_instruments table. An instrument can be enabled or disabled by setting its ENABLED value to YES or NO. An instrument can be configured whether to collect timing information by setting its TIMED value to YES or NO.

  • To affect pre-filtering at the consumer stage, modify the setup_consumers table. A consumer can be enabled or disabled by setting its ENABLED value to YES or NO.

Here are some examples that show the types of pre-filtering operations available:

  • Disable all instruments:

    mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments SET ENABLED = 'NO';
    

    Now no events will be collected. This change, like other pre-filtering operations, affects other users as well, even if they want to see event information.

  • Disable all file instruments, adding them to the current set of disabled instruments:

    mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments SET ENABLED = 'NO'
        -> WHERE NAME LIKE 'wait/io/file/%';
    
  • Disable only file instruments, enable all other instruments:

    mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments
        -> SET ENABLED = IF(NAME LIKE 'wait/io/file/%', 'NO', 'YES');
    

    The preceding queries use the LIKE operator and the pattern 'wait/io/file/%' to match all instrument names that begin with 'wait/io/file/. For additional information about specifying patterns to select instruments, see Section 22.2.3.4, “Naming Instruments or Consumers for Filtering Operations”.

  • Enable all but those instruments in the mysys library:

    mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments
        -> SET ENABLED = CASE WHEN NAME LIKE '%/mysys/%' THEN 'YES' ELSE 'NO' END;
    
  • Disable a specific instrument:

    mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments SET ENABLED = 'NO'
        -> WHERE NAME = 'wait/synch/mutex/mysys/TMPDIR_mutex';
    
  • To toggle the state of an instrument, flip its ENABLED value:

    mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments
        -> SET ENABLED = IF(ENABLED = 'YES', 'NO', 'YES')
        -> WHERE NAME = 'wait/synch/mutex/mysys/TMPDIR_mutex';
    
  • Disable timing for all events:

    mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments SET TIMED = 'NO';
    

Setting the TIMED column for instruments affects Performance Schema table contents as described in Section 22.2.3.1, “Performance Schema Event Timing”.

When you change the monitoring configuration, the Performance Schema does not flush the history tables. Events already collected remain in the current-events and history tables until displaced by newer events. If you disable instruments, you might need to wait a while before events for them are displaced by newer events of interest. Alternatively, use TRUNCATE TABLE to empty the history tables.

After making instrumentation changes, you might want to truncate the summary tables to clear aggregate information for previously collected events. The effect of TRUNCATE TABLE for summary tables is to reset the summary columns to 0 or NULL, not to remove rows.

If you disable a consumer, the server does not spend time maintaining destinations for that consumer. For example, if you do not care about historical event information, disable the history consumers:

mysql> UPDATE setup_consumers
    -> SET ENABLED = 'NO' WHERE NAME LIKE '%history%';

22.2.3.4 Naming Instruments or Consumers for Filtering Operations

Names given for filtering operations can be as specific or general as required. To indicate a single instrument or consumer, specify its name in full:

mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments
    -> SET ENABLED = 'NO'
    -> WHERE NAME = 'wait/synch/mutex/myisammrg/MYRG_INFO::mutex';

mysql> UPDATE setup_consumers
    -> SET ENABLED = 'NO' WHERE NAME = 'file_summary_by_instance';

To specify a group of instruments or consumers, use a pattern that matches the group members:

mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments
    -> SET ENABLED = 'NO'
    -> WHERE NAME LIKE 'wait/synch/mutex/%';

mysql> UPDATE setup_consumers
    -> SET ENABLED = 'NO' WHERE NAME LIKE '%history%';

If you use a pattern, it should be chosen so that it matches all the items of interest and no others. For example, to select all file I/O instruments, it is better to use a pattern that includes the entire instrument name prefix:

... WHERE NAME LIKE 'wait/io/file/%';

A pattern of '%/file/%' will match other instruments that have a component of '/file/' anywhere in the name. Even less suitable is the pattern '%file%' because it will match instruments with 'file' anywhere in the name, such as wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_des_key_file.

To check which instrument or consumer names a pattern matches, perform a simple test:

mysql> SELECT NAME FROM setup_instruments WHERE NAME LIKE 'pattern';

mysql> SELECT NAME FROM setup_consumers WHERE NAME LIKE 'pattern';

For information about the types of names that are supported, see Section 22.4, “Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions”.

22.2.3.5 Determining What Is Instrumented

It is always possible to determine what instruments the Performance Schema includes by checking the setup_instruments table. For example, to see what file-related events are instrumented for the InnoDB storage engine, use this query:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_instruments WHERE NAME LIKE 'wait/io/file/innodb/%';
+--------------------------------------+---------+-------+
| NAME                                 | ENABLED | TIMED |
+--------------------------------------+---------+-------+
| wait/io/file/innodb/innodb_data_file | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/innodb/innodb_log_file  | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/innodb/innodb_temp_file | YES     | YES   |
+--------------------------------------+---------+-------+

An exhaustive description of precisely what is instrumented is not given in this documentation, for several reasons:

  • What is instrumented is the server code. Changes to this code occur often, which also affects the set of instruments.

  • It is not practical to list all the instruments because there are hundreds of them.

  • As described earlier, it is possible to find out by querying the setup_instruments table. This information is always up to date for your version of MySQL, also includes instrumentation for instrumented plugins you might have installed that are not part of the core server, and can be used by automated tools.

22.3 Performance Schema Queries

Pre-filtering limits which event information is collected and is independent of any particular user. By contrast, post-filtering is performed by individual users through the use of queries with appropriate WHERE clauses that restrict what event information to select from the events available after pre-filtering has been applied.

In Section 22.2.3.3, “Event Pre-Filtering”, an example showed how to pre-filter for file instruments. If the event tables contain both file and nonfile information, post-filtering is another way to see information only for file events. Add a WHERE clause to queries to restrict event selection appropriately:

mysql> SELECT THREAD_ID, NUMBER_OF_BYTES
    -> FROM events_waits_history
    -> WHERE EVENT_NAME LIKE 'wait/io/file/%'
    -> AND NUMBER_OF_BYTES IS NOT NULL;
+-----------+-----------------+
| THREAD_ID | NUMBER_OF_BYTES |
+-----------+-----------------+
|        11 |              66 |
|        11 |              47 |
|        11 |             139 |
|         5 |              24 |
|         5 |             834 |
+-----------+-----------------+

22.4 Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions

An instrument name consists of a sequence of components separated by '/' characters. Example names:

wait/io/file/myisam/log
wait/io/file/mysys/charset
wait/synch/cond/mysys/COND_alarm
wait/synch/cond/sql/BINLOG::update_cond
wait/synch/mutex/mysys/BITMAP_mutex
wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_delete
wait/synch/rwlock/innodb/trx_sys_lock
wait/synch/rwlock/sql/Query_cache_query::lock

The instrument name space has a tree-like structure. The components of an instrument name from left to right provide a progression from more general to more specific. The number of components a name has depends on the type of instrument.

The interpretation of a given component in a name depends on the components to the left of it. For example, myisam appears in both of the following names, but myisam in the first name is related to file I/O, whereas in the second it is related to a synchronization instrument:

wait/io/file/myisam/log
wait/synch/cond/myisam/MI_SORT_INFO::cond

Instrument names consist of a prefix with a structure defined by the Performance Schema implementation and a suffix defined by the developer implementing the instrument code. The top-level component of an instrument prefix indicates the type of instrument. This component also determines which event timer in the setup_timers table applies to the instrument. For the prefix part of instrument names, the top level indicates the type of instrument.

The suffix part of instrument names comes from the code for the instruments themselves. Suffixes may include levels such as these:

  • A name for the major component (a server module such as myisam, innodb, mysys, or sql) or a plugin name.

  • The name of a variable in the code, in the form XXX (a global variable) or CCC::MMM (a member MMM in class CCC). Examples: COND_thread_cache, THR_LOCK_myisam, BINLOG::LOCK_index.

In MySQL 5.5, there is a single top-level component, wait, indicating a wait instrument. The naming tree for wait instruments has this structure:

  • wait/io

    An instrumented I/O operation.

    • wait/io/file

      An instrumented file I/O operation. For files, the wait is the time waiting for the file operation to complete (for example, a call to fwrite()). Due to caching, the physical file I/O on the disk might not happen within this call.

  • wait/synch

    An instrumented synchronization object. For synchronization objects, the TIMER_WAIT time includes the amount of time blocked while attempting to acquire a lock on the object, if any.

    • wait/synch/cond

      A condition is used by one thread to signal to other threads that something they were waiting for has happened. If a single thread was waiting for a condition, it can wake up and proceed with its execution. If several threads were waiting, they can all wake up and compete for the resource for which they were waiting.

    • wait/synch/mutex

      A mutual exclusion object used to permit access to a resource (such as a section of executable code) while preventing other threads from accessing the resource.

    • wait/synch/rwlock

      A read/write lock object used to lock a specific variable for access while preventing its use by other threads. A shared read lock can be acquired simultaneously by multiple threads. An exclusive write lock can be acquired by only one thread at a time.

22.5 Performance Schema Status Monitoring

There are several status variables associated with the Performance Schema:

mysql> SHOW STATUS LIKE 'perf%';
+------------------------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name                            | Value |
+------------------------------------------+-------+
| Performance_schema_cond_classes_lost     | 0     |
| Performance_schema_cond_instances_lost   | 0     |
| Performance_schema_file_classes_lost     | 0     |
| Performance_schema_file_handles_lost     | 0     |
| Performance_schema_file_instances_lost   | 0     |
| Performance_schema_locker_lost           | 0     |
| Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost    | 0     |
| Performance_schema_mutex_instances_lost  | 0     |
| Performance_schema_rwlock_classes_lost   | 0     |
| Performance_schema_rwlock_instances_lost | 0     |
| Performance_schema_table_handles_lost    | 0     |
| Performance_schema_table_instances_lost  | 0     |
| Performance_schema_thread_classes_lost   | 0     |
| Performance_schema_thread_instances_lost | 0     |
+------------------------------------------+-------+

The Performance Schema status variables provide information about instrumentation that could not be loaded or created due to memory constraints. Names for these variables have several forms:

  • Performance_schema_xxx_classes_lost indicates how many instruments of type xxx could not be loaded.

  • Performance_schema_xxx_instances_lost indicates how many instances of object type xxx could not be created.

  • Performance_schema_xxx_handles_lost indicates how many instances of object type xxx could not be opened.

  • Performance_schema_locker_lost indicates how many events are lost or not recorded.

For example, if a mutex is instrumented in the server source but the server cannot allocate memory for the instrumentation at runtime, it increments Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost. The mutex still functions as a synchronization object (that is, the server continues to function normally), but performance data for it will not be collected. If the instrument can be allocated, it can be used for initializing instrumented mutex instances. For a singleton mutex such as a global mutex, there will be only one instance. Other mutexes have an instance per connection, or per page in various caches and data buffers, so the number of instances varies over time. Increasing the maximum number of connections or the maximum size of some buffers will increase the maximum number of instances that might be allocated at once. If the server cannot create a given instrumented mutex instance, it increments Performance_schema_mutex_instances_lost.

Suppose that the following conditions hold:

  • The server was started with the --performance_schema_max_mutex_classes=200 option and thus has room for 200 mutex instruments.

  • 150 mutex instruments have been loaded already.

  • The plugin named plugin_a contains 40 mutex instruments.

  • The plugin named plugin_b contains 20 mutex instruments.

The server allocates mutex instruments for the plugins depending on how many they need and how many are available, as illustrated by the following sequence of statements:

INSTALL PLUGIN plugin_a

The server now has 150+40 = 190 mutex instruments.

UNINSTALL PLUGIN plugin_a;

The server still has 190 instruments. All the historical data generated by the plugin code is still available, but new events for the instruments are not collected.

INSTALL PLUGIN plugin_a;

The server detects that the 40 instruments are already defined, so no new instruments are created, and previously assigned internal memory buffers are reused. The server still has 190 instruments.

INSTALL PLUGIN plugin_b;

The server has room for 200-190 = 10 instruments (in this case, mutex classes), and sees that the plugin contains 20 new instruments. 10 instruments are loaded, and 10 are discarded or lost. The Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost indicates the number of instruments (mutex classes) lost:

mysql> SHOW STATUS LIKE "perf%mutex_classes_lost";
+---------------------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name                         | Value |
+---------------------------------------+-------+
| Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost | 10    |
+---------------------------------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.10 sec)

The instrumentation still works and collects (partial) data for plugin_b.

When the server cannot create a mutex instrument, these results occur:

The pattern just described applies to all types of instruments, not just mutexes.

A value of Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost greater than 0 can happen in two cases:

  • To save a few bytes of memory, you start the server with --performance_schema_max_mutex_classes=N, where N is less than the default value. The default value is chosen to be sufficient to load all the plugins provided in the MySQL distribution, but this can be reduced if some plugins are never loaded. For example, you might choose not to load some of the storage engines in the distribution.

  • You load a third-party plugin that is instrumented for the Performance Schema but do not allow for the plugin's instrumentation memory requirements when you start the server. Because it comes from a third party, the instrument memory consumption of this engine is not accounted for in the default value chosen for performance_schema_max_mutex_classes.

    If the server has insufficient resources for the plugin's instruments and you do not explicitly allocate more using --performance_schema_max_mutex_classes=N, loading the plugin leads to starvation of instruments.

If the value chosen for performance_schema_max_mutex_classes is too small, no error is reported in the error log and there is no failure at runtime. However, the content of the tables in the performance_schema database will miss events. The Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost status variable is the only visible sign to indicate that some events were dropped internally due to failure to create instruments.

If an instrument is not lost, it is known to the Performance Schema, and is used when instrumenting instances. For example, wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_delete is the name of a mutex instrument in the setup_instruments table. This single instrument is used when creating a mutex in the code (in THD::LOCK_delete) however many instances of the mutex are needed as the server runs. In this case, LOCK_delete is a mutex that is per connection (THD), so if a server has 1000 connections, there are 1000 threads, and 1000 instrumented LOCK_delete mutex instances (THD::LOCK_delete).

If the server does not have room for all these 1000 instrumented mutexes (instances), some mutexes are created with instrumentation, and some are created without instrumentation. If the server can create only 800 instances, 200 instances are lost. The server continues to run, but increments Performance_schema_mutex_instances_lost by 200 to indicate that instances could not be created.

A value of Performance_schema_mutex_instances_lost greater than 0 can happen when the code initializes more mutexes at runtime than were allocated for --performance_schema_max_mutex_instances=N.

The bottom line is that if SHOW STATUS LIKE 'perf%' says that nothing was lost (all values are zero), the Performance Schema data is accurate and can be relied upon. If something was lost, the data is incomplete, and the Performance Schema could not record everything given the insufficient amount of memory it was given to use. In this case, the specific Performance_schema_xxx_lost variable indicates the problem area.

It might be appropriate in some cases to cause deliberate instrument starvation. For example, if you do not care about performance data for file I/O, you can start the server with all Performance Schema parameters related to file I/O set to 0. No memory will be allocated for file-related classes, instances, or handles, and all file events will be lost.

Use SHOW ENGINE PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA STATUS to inspect the internal operation of the Performance Schema code:

mysql> SHOW ENGINE PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA STATUS\G
...
*************************** 3. row ***************************
  Type: performance_schema
  Name: events_waits_history.row_size
Status: 76
*************************** 4. row ***************************
  Type: performance_schema
  Name: events_waits_history.row_count
Status: 10000
*************************** 5. row ***************************
  Type: performance_schema
  Name: events_waits_history.memory
Status: 760000
...
*************************** 57. row ***************************
  Type: performance_schema
  Name: performance_schema.memory
Status: 26459600
...

This statement is intended to help the DBA understand the effects that different Performance Schema options have on memory requirements. For a description of the field meanings, see Section 13.7.5.16, “SHOW ENGINE Syntax”.

22.6 Performance Schema General Table Characteristics

The name of the performance_schema database is lowercase, as are the names of tables within it. Queries should specify the names in lowercase.

Most tables in the performance_schema database are read only and cannot be modified. Some of the setup tables have columns that can be modified to affect Performance Schema operation. Truncation is permitted to clear collected events, so TRUNCATE TABLE can be used on tables containing those kinds of information, such as tables named with a prefix of events_waits_.

TRUNCATE TABLE can also be used with summary tables, but the effect is to reset the summary columns to 0 or NULL, not to remove rows.

Privileges are as for other databases and tables:

  • To retrieve from performance_schema tables, you must have the SELECT privilege.

  • To change those columns that can be modified, you must have the UPDATE privilege.

  • To truncate tables that can be truncated, you must have the DROP privilege.

22.7 Performance Schema Table Descriptions

Tables in the performance_schema database can be grouped as follows:

  • Setup tables. These tables are used to configure and display monitoring characteristics.

  • Current events table. The events_waits_current table contains the most recent event for each thread.

  • History tables. These tables have the same structure as events_waits_current but contain more rows. The events_waits_history table contains the most recent 10 events per thread. events_waits_history_long contains the most recent 10,000 events.

    To change the sizes of these tables, set the performance_schema_events_waits_history_size and performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size system variables at server startup.

  • Summary tables. These tables contain information aggregated over groups of events, including those that have been discarded from the history tables.

  • Instance tables. These tables document what types of objects are instrumented. An instrumented object, when used by the server, produces an event. These tables provide event names and explanatory notes or status information.

  • Miscellaneous tables. These do not fall into any of the other table groups.

22.7.1 Performance Schema Table Index

The following table lists each Performance Schema table and provides a short description of each one.

Table 22.1 Performance Schema Tables

Table NameDescription
cond_instancessynchronization object instances
events_waits_currentCurrent wait events
events_waits_historyMost recent wait events for each thread
events_waits_history_longMost recent wait events overall
events_waits_summary_by_instanceWait events per instance
events_waits_summary_by_thread_by_event_nameWait events per thread and event name
events_waits_summary_global_by_event_nameWait events per event name
file_instancesFile instances
file_summary_by_event_nameFile events per event name
file_summary_by_instanceFile events per file instance
mutex_instancesMutex synchronization object instances
performance_timersWhich event timers are available
rwlock_instancesLock synchronization object instances
setup_consumersConsumers for which event information can be stored
setup_instrumentsClasses of instrumented objects for which events can be collected
setup_timersCurrent event timer
threadsInformation about server threads

22.7.2 Performance Schema Setup Tables

The setup tables provide information about the current instrumentation and enable the monitoring configuration to be changed. For this reason, some columns in these tables can be changed if you have the UPDATE privilege.

The use of tables rather than individual variables for setup information provides a high degree of flexibility in modifying Performance Schema configuration. For example, you can use a single statement with standard SQL syntax to make multiple simultaneous configuration changes.

These setup tables are available:

22.7.2.1 The setup_consumers Table

The setup_consumers table lists the types of consumers for which event information can be stored:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_consumers;
+----------------------------------------------+---------+
| NAME                                         | ENABLED |
+----------------------------------------------+---------+
| events_waits_current                         | YES     |
| events_waits_history                         | YES     |
| events_waits_history_long                    | YES     |
| events_waits_summary_by_thread_by_event_name | YES     |
| events_waits_summary_by_event_name           | YES     |
| events_waits_summary_by_instance             | YES     |
| file_summary_by_event_name                   | YES     |
| file_summary_by_instance                     | YES     |
+----------------------------------------------+---------+

The setup_consumers table has these columns:

  • NAME

    The consumer name.

  • ENABLED

    Whether the consumer is enabled. The value is YES or NO. This column can be modified. If you disable a consumer, the server does not spend time adding event information to it.

Disabling the events_waits_current consumer disables everything else that depends on waits, such as the events_waits_history and events_waits_history_long tables, and all summary tables.

22.7.2.2 The setup_instruments Table

The setup_instruments table lists classes of instrumented objects for which events can be collected:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_instruments;
+------------------------------------------------------------+---------+-------+
| NAME                                                       | ENABLED | TIMED |
+------------------------------------------------------------+---------+-------+
...
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_global_read_lock                 | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_global_system_variables          | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_lock_db                          | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/mutex/sql/LOCK_manager                          | YES     | YES   |
...
| wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_grant                           | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOGGER::LOCK_logger                  | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_sys_init_connect                | YES     | YES   |
| wait/synch/rwlock/sql/LOCK_sys_init_slave                  | YES     | YES   |
...
| wait/io/file/sql/binlog                                    | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/sql/binlog_index                              | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/sql/casetest                                  | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/sql/dbopt                                     | YES     | YES   |
...

Each instrument added to the source code provides a row for this table, even when the instrumented code is not executed. When an instrument is enabled and executed, instrumented instances are created, which are visible in the *_instances tables.

The setup_instruments table has these columns:

  • NAME

    The instrument name. Instrument names may have multiple parts and form a hierarchy, as discussed in Section 22.4, “Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions”. Events produced from execution of an instrument have an EVENT_NAME value that is taken from the instrument NAME value. (Events do not really have a name, but this provides a way to associate events with instruments.)

  • ENABLED

    Whether the instrument is enabled. The value is YES or NO. This column can be modified. A disabled instrument produces no events.

  • TIMED

    Whether the instrument is timed. This column can be modified.

    If an enabled instrument is not timed, the instrument code is enabled, but the timer is not. Events produced by the instrument have NULL for the TIMER_START, TIMER_END, and TIMER_WAIT timer values. This in turn causes those values to be ignored when calculating the sum, minimum, maximum, and average time values in summary tables.

22.7.2.3 The setup_timers Table

The setup_timers table shows the currently selected event timer:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_timers;
+------+------------+
| NAME | TIMER_NAME |
+------+------------+
| wait | CYCLE      |
+------+------------+

The setup_timers.TIMER_NAME value can be changed to select a different timer. The value can be any of the values in the performance_timers.TIMER_NAME column. For an explanation of how event timing occurs, see Section 22.2.3.1, “Performance Schema Event Timing”.

Modifications to the setup_timers table affect monitoring immediately. Events already in progress use the original timer for the begin time and the new timer for the end time, which leads to unpredictable results. If you make timer changes, you may want to use TRUNCATE TABLE to reset Performance Schema statistics.

The setup_timers table has these columns:

  • NAME

    The type of instrument the timer is used for.

  • TIMER_NAME

    The timer that applies to the instrument type. This column can be modified.

22.7.3 Performance Schema Instance Tables

Instance tables document what types of objects are instrumented. They provide event names and explanatory notes or status information:

These tables list instrumented synchronization objects and files. There are three types of synchronization objects: cond, mutex, and rwlock. Each instance table has an EVENT_NAME or NAME column to indicate the instrument associated with each row. Instrument names may have multiple parts and form a hierarchy, as discussed in Section 22.4, “Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions”.

The mutex_instances.LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID and rwlock_instances.WRITE_LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID columns are extremely important for investigating performance bottlenecks or deadlocks. For examples of how to use them for this purpose, see Section 22.12, “Using the Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems”

22.7.3.1 The cond_instances Table

The cond_instances table lists all the conditions seen by the Performance Schema while the server executes. A condition is a synchronization mechanism used in the code to signal that a specific event has happened, so that a thread waiting for this condition can resume work.

When a thread is waiting for something to happen, the condition name is an indication of what the thread is waiting for, but there is no immediate way to tell which other thread, or threads, will cause the condition to happen.

The cond_instances table has these columns:

  • NAME

    The instrument name associated with the condition.

  • OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN

    The address in memory of the instrumented condition.

22.7.3.2 The file_instances Table

The file_instances table lists all the files seen by the Performance Schema when executing file I/O instrumentation. If a file on disk has never been opened, it will not be in file_instances. When a file is deleted from the disk, it is also removed from the file_instances table.

The file_instances table has these columns:

  • FILE_NAME

    The file name.

  • EVENT_NAME

    The instrument name associated with the file.

  • OPEN_COUNT

    The count of open handles on the file. If a file was opened and then closed, it was opened 1 time, but OPEN_COUNT will be 0. To list all the files currently opened by the server, use WHERE OPEN_COUNT > 0.

22.7.3.3 The mutex_instances Table

The mutex_instances table lists all the mutexes seen by the Performance Schema while the server executes. A mutex is a synchronization mechanism used in the code to enforce that only one thread at a given time can have access to some common resource. The resource is said to be protected by the mutex.

When two threads executing in the server (for example, two user sessions executing a query simultaneously) do need to access the same resource (a file, a buffer, or some piece of data), these two threads will compete against each other, so that the first query to obtain a lock on the mutex will cause the other query to wait until the first is done and unlocks the mutex.

The work performed while holding a mutex is said to be in a critical section, and multiple queries do execute this critical section in a serialized way (one at a time), which is a potential bottleneck.

The mutex_instances table has these columns:

  • NAME

    The instrument name associated with the mutex.

  • OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN

    The address in memory of the instrumented mutex.

  • LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID

    When a thread currently has a mutex locked, LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID is the THREAD_ID of the locking thread, otherwise it is NULL.

For every mutex instrumented in the code, the Performance Schema provides the following information.

  • The setup_instruments table lists the name of the instrumentation point, with the prefix wait/synch/mutex/.

  • When some code creates a mutex, a row is added to the mutex_instances table. The OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN column is a property that uniquely identifies the mutex.

  • When a thread attempts to lock a mutex, the events_waits_current table shows a row for that thread, indicating that it is waiting on a mutex (in the EVENT_NAME column), and indicating which mutex is waited on (in the OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN column).

  • When a thread succeeds in locking a mutex:

  • When a thread unlocks a mutex, mutex_instances shows that the mutex now has no owner (the THREAD_ID column is NULL).

  • When a mutex object is destroyed, the corresponding row is removed from mutex_instances.

By performing queries on both of the following tables, a monitoring application or a DBA can detect bottlenecks or deadlocks between threads that involve mutexes:

22.7.3.4 The rwlock_instances Table

The rwlock_instances table lists all the rwlock instances (read write locks) seen by the Performance Schema while the server executes. An rwlock is a synchronization mechanism used in the code to enforce that threads at a given time can have access to some common resource following certain rules. The resource is said to be protected by the rwlock. The access is either shared (many threads can have a read lock at the same time) or exclusive (only one thread can have a write lock at a given time).

Depending on how many threads are requesting a lock, and the nature of the locks requested, access can be either granted in shared mode, granted in exclusive mode, or not granted at all, waiting for other threads to finish first.

The rwlock_instances table has these columns:

  • NAME

    The instrument name associated with the lock.

  • OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN

    The address in memory of the instrumented lock.

  • WRITE_LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID

    When a thread currently has an rwlock locked in exclusive (write) mode, WRITE_LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID is the THREAD_ID of the locking thread, otherwise it is NULL.

  • READ_LOCKED_BY_COUNT

    When a thread currently has an rwlock locked in shared (read) mode, READ_LOCKED_BY_COUNT is incremented by 1. This is a counter only, so it cannot be used directly to find which thread holds a read lock, but it can be used to see whether there is a read contention on an rwlock, and see how many readers are currently active.

By performing queries on both of the following tables, a monitoring application or a DBA may detect some bottlenecks or deadlocks between threads that involve locks:

There is a limitation: The rwlock_instances can be used only to identify the thread holding a write lock, but not the threads holding a read lock.

22.7.4 Performance Schema Wait Event Tables

These tables store wait events:

The following sections describe those tables. There are also summary tables that aggregate information about wait events; see Section 22.7.5.1, “Event Wait Summary Tables”.

Wait Event Configuration

To enable collection of wait events, enable the relevant instruments and consumers.

The setup_instruments table contains instruments with names that begin with wait. For example:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_instruments WHERE NAME LIKE 'wait/io/file/innodb%';
+--------------------------------------+---------+-------+
| NAME                                 | ENABLED | TIMED |
+--------------------------------------+---------+-------+
| wait/io/file/innodb/innodb_data_file | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/innodb/innodb_log_file  | YES     | YES   |
| wait/io/file/innodb/innodb_temp_file | YES     | YES   |
+--------------------------------------+---------+-------+
mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_instruments WHERE NAME LIKE 'wait/io/socket/%';
+----------------------------------------+---------+-------+
| NAME                                   | ENABLED | TIMED |
+----------------------------------------+---------+-------+
| wait/io/socket/sql/server_tcpip_socket | NO      | NO    |
| wait/io/socket/sql/server_unix_socket  | NO      | NO    |
| wait/io/socket/sql/client_connection   | NO      | NO    |
+----------------------------------------+---------+-------+

To modify collection of wait events, change the ENABLED and TIMING columns of the relevant instruments. For example:

mysql> UPDATE setup_instruments SET ENABLED = 'YES', TIMED = 'YES'
    -> WHERE NAME LIKE 'wait/io/socket/sql/%';

The setup_consumers table contains consumer values with names corresponding to the current and recent wait event table names. These consumers may be used to filter collection of wait events. The wait consumers are disabled by default:

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_consumers WHERE NAME LIKE '%waits%';
+---------------------------+---------+
| NAME                      | ENABLED |
+---------------------------+---------+
| events_waits_current      | NO      |
| events_waits_history      | NO      |
| events_waits_history_long | NO      |
+---------------------------+---------+

To enable all wait consumers, do this:

mysql> UPDATE setup_consumers SET ENABLED = 'YES'
    -> WHERE NAME LIKE '%waits%';

The setup_timers table contains a row with a NAME value of wait that indicates the unit for wait event timing. The default unit is CYCLE.

mysql> SELECT * FROM setup_timers WHERE NAME = 'wait';
+------+------------+
| NAME | TIMER_NAME |
+------+------------+
| wait | CYCLE      |
+------+------------+

To change the timing unit, modify the TIMER_NAME value:

mysql> UPDATE setup_timers SET TIMER_NAME = 'NANOSECOND'
    -> WHERE NAME = 'wait';

For additional information about configuring event collection, see Section 22.2, “Performance Schema Configuration”.

22.7.4.1 The events_waits_current Table

The events_waits_current table contains current wait events, one row per thread showing the current status of the thread's most recent monitored wait event.

The events_waits_current table can be truncated with TRUNCATE TABLE.

Of the tables that contain wait event rows, events_waits_current is the most fundamental. Other tables that contain wait event rows are logically derived from the current events. For example, the events_waits_history and events_waits_history_long tables are collections of the most recent wait events, up to a fixed number of rows.

For information about configuration of wait event collection, see Section 22.7.4, “Performance Schema Wait Event Tables”.

The events_waits_current table has these columns:

  • THREAD_ID, EVENT_ID

    The thread associated with the event and the thread current event number when the event starts. The THREAD_ID and EVENT_ID values taken together form a primary key that uniquely identifies the row. No two rows will have the same pair of values.

  • EVENT_NAME

    The name of the instrument that produced the event. This is a NAME value from the setup_instruments table. Instrument names may have multiple parts and form a hierarchy, as discussed in Section 22.4, “Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions”.

  • SOURCE

    The name of the source file containing the instrumented code that produced the event and the line number in the file at which the instrumentation occurs. This enables you to check the source to determine exactly what code is involved. For example, if a mutex or lock is being blocked, you can check the context in which this occurs.

  • TIMER_START, TIMER_END, TIMER_WAIT

    Timing information for the event. The unit for these values is picoseconds (trillionths of a second). The TIMER_START and TIMER_END values indicate when event timing started and ended. TIMER_WAIT is the event elapsed time (duration).

    If an event has not finished, TIMER_END and TIMER_WAIT are NULL.

    If an event is produced from an instrument that has TIMED = NO, timing information is not collected, and TIMER_START, TIMER_END, and TIMER_WAIT are all NULL.

    For discussion of picoseconds as the unit for event times and factors that affect time values, see Section 22.2.3.1, “Performance Schema Event Timing”.

  • SPINS

    For a mutex, the number of spin rounds. If the value is NULL, the code does not use spin rounds or spinning is not instrumented.

  • OBJECT_SCHEMA, OBJECT_NAME, OBJECT_TYPE, OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN

    These columns identify the object being acted on. What that means depends on the object type.

    For a synchronization object (cond, mutex, rwlock):

    • OBJECT_SCHEMA, OBJECT_NAME, and OBJECT_TYPE are NULL.

    • OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN is the address of the synchronization object in memory.

    For a file I/O object:

    • OBJECT_SCHEMA is NULL.

    • OBJECT_NAME is the file name.

    • OBJECT_TYPE is FILE.

    • OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN is an address in memory.

    An OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN value itself has no meaning, except that different values indicate different objects. OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN can be used for debugging. For example, it can be used with GROUP BY OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN to see whether the load on 1,000 mutexes (that protect, say, 1,000 pages or blocks of data) is spread evenly or just hitting a few bottlenecks. This can help you correlate with other sources of information if you see the same object address in a log file or another debugging or performance tool.

  • NESTING_EVENT_ID

    Currently NULL.

  • OPERATION

    The type of operation performed, such as lock, read, or write.

  • NUMBER_OF_BYTES

    The number of bytes read or written by the operation.

  • FLAGS

    Reserved for future use.

22.7.4.2 The events_waits_history Table

The events_waits_history table contains the most recent 10 wait events per thread. To change the table size, modify the performance_schema_events_waits_history_size system variable at server startup. Wait events are not added to the table until they have ended. As new events are added, older events are discarded if the table is full.

The events_waits_history table has the same structure as events_waits_current. See Section 22.7.4.1, “The events_waits_current Table”.

The events_waits_history table can be truncated with TRUNCATE TABLE.

For information about configuration of wait event collection, see Section 22.7.4, “Performance Schema Wait Event Tables”.

22.7.4.3 The events_waits_history_long Table

The events_waits_history_long table contains the most recent 10,000 wait events. To change the table size, modify the performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size system variable at server startup. Wait events are not added to the table until they have ended. As new events are added, older events are discarded if the table is full.

The events_waits_history_long table has the same structure as events_waits_current. See Section 22.7.4.1, “The events_waits_current Table”.

The events_waits_history_long table can be truncated with TRUNCATE TABLE.

For information about configuration of wait event collection, see Section 22.7.4, “Performance Schema Wait Event Tables”.

22.7.5 Performance Schema Summary Tables

Summary tables provide aggregated information for terminated events over time. The tables in this group summarize event data in different ways.

Event Wait Summaries:

File I/O Summaries:

The events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name table was named EVENTS_WAITS_SUMMARY_BY_EVENT_NAME before MySQL 5.5.7.

Each summary table has grouping columns that determine how to group the data to be aggregated, and summary columns that contain the aggregated values. Tables that summarize events in similar ways often have similar sets of summary columns and differ only in the grouping columns used to determine how events are aggregated.

Summary tables can be truncated with TRUNCATE TABLE. The effect is to reset the summary columns to 0 or NULL, not to remove rows. This enables you to clear collected values and restart aggregation. That might be useful, for example, after you have made a runtime configuration change.

22.7.5.1 Event Wait Summary Tables

The Performance Schema maintains tables for collecting current and recent wait events, and aggregates that information in summary tables. Section 22.7.4, “Performance Schema Wait Event Tables” describes the events on which wait summaries are based. See that discussion for information about the content of wait events, the current and recent wait event tables, and how to control wait event collection.

Each event waits summary table has one or more grouping columns to indicate how the table aggregates events. Event names refer to names of event instruments in the setup_instruments table.

  • events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name has an EVENT_NAME column. Each row summarizes events for a given event name. An instrument might be used to create multiple instances of the instrumented object. For example, if there is an instrument for a mutex that is created for each connection, there are as many instances as there are connections. The summary row for the instrument summarizes over all these instances.

  • events_waits_summary_by_instance has EVENT_NAME and OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN columns. Each row summarizes events for a given event name and object. If an instrument is used to create multiple instances, each instance has a unique OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN value, so these instances are summarized separately in this table.

  • events_waits_summary_by_thread_by_event_name has THREAD_ID and EVENT_NAME columns. Each row summarizes events for a given thread and event name.

All event waits summary tables have these summary columns containing aggregated values:

  • COUNT_STAR

    The number of summarized events. This value includes all events, whether timed or nontimed.

  • SUM_TIMER_WAIT

    The total wait time of the summarized timed events. This value is calculated only for timed events because nontimed events have a wait time of NULL. The same is true for the other xxx_TIMER_WAIT values.

  • MIN_TIMER_WAIT

    The minimum wait time of the summarized timed events.

  • AVG_TIMER_WAIT

    The average wait time of the summarized timed events.

  • MAX_TIMER_WAIT

    The maximum wait time of the summarized timed events.

Example wait event summary information:

mysql> SELECT * FROM events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name\G
...
*************************** 6. row ***************************
    EVENT_NAME: wait/synch/mutex/sql/BINARY_LOG::LOCK_index
    COUNT_STAR: 8
SUM_TIMER_WAIT: 2119302
MIN_TIMER_WAIT: 196092
AVG_TIMER_WAIT: 264912
MAX_TIMER_WAIT: 569421
...
*************************** 9. row ***************************
    EVENT_NAME: wait/synch/mutex/sql/hash_filo::lock
    COUNT_STAR: 69
SUM_TIMER_WAIT: 16848828
MIN_TIMER_WAIT: 0
AVG_TIMER_WAIT: 244185
MAX_TIMER_WAIT: 735345
...

TRUNCATE TABLE is permitted for wait summary tables. It resets the summary columns to zero rather than removing rows.

22.7.5.2 File I/O Summary Tables

The file I/O summary tables aggregate information about I/O operations.

Each file I/O summary table has one or more grouping columns to indicate how the table aggregates events. Event names refer to names of event instruments in the setup_instruments table.

All file I/O summary tables have these summary columns containing aggregated values:

  • COUNT_READ

    The number of read operations in the summarized events.

  • COUNT_WRITE

    The number of write operations in the summarized events.

  • SUM_NUMBER_OF_BYTES_READ

    The number of bytes read in the summarized events.

  • SUM_NUMBER_OF_BYTES_WRITE

    The number of bytes written in the summarized events.

Example file I/O event summary information:

mysql> SELECT * FROM file_summary_by_instance\G
...
*************************** 2. row ***************************
                FILE_NAME: /var/mysql/share/english/errmsg.sys
               EVENT_NAME: wait/io/file/sql/ERRMSG
               COUNT_READ: 3
              COUNT_WRITE: 0
 SUM_NUMBER_OF_BYTES_READ: 42211
SUM_NUMBER_OF_BYTES_WRITE: 0
...
*************************** 6. row ***************************
                FILE_NAME: /var/mysql/data/binlog.000001
               EVENT_NAME: wait/io/file/sql/binlog
               COUNT_READ: 0
              COUNT_WRITE: 0
 SUM_NUMBER_OF_BYTES_READ: 0
SUM_NUMBER_OF_BYTES_WRITE: 0
...

TRUNCATE TABLE is permitted for file I/O summary tables. It resets the summary columns to zero rather than removing rows.

The MySQL server uses several techniques to avoid I/O operations by caching information read from files, so it is possible that statements you might expect to result in I/O events will not. You may be able to ensure that I/O does occur by flushing caches or restarting the server to reset its state.

22.7.6 Performance Schema Miscellaneous Tables

The following sections describe tables that do not fall into the table categories discussed in the preceding sections:

22.7.6.1 The performance_timers Table

The performance_timers table shows which event timers are available:

mysql> SELECT * FROM performance_timers;
+-------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+
| TIMER_NAME  | TIMER_FREQUENCY | TIMER_RESOLUTION | TIMER_OVERHEAD |
+-------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+
| CYCLE       |      2389029850 |                1 |             72 |
| NANOSECOND  |            NULL |             NULL |           NULL |
| MICROSECOND |         1000000 |                1 |            585 |
| MILLISECOND |            1035 |                1 |            738 |
| TICK        |             101 |                1 |            630 |
+-------------+-----------------+------------------+----------------+

If the values associated with a given timer name are NULL, that timer is not supported on your platform. The rows that do not contain NULL indicate which timers you can use in setup_timers.

The performance_timers table has these columns:

  • TIMER_NAME

    The name by which to refer to the timer when configuring the setup_timers table.

  • TIMER_FREQUENCY

    The number of timer units per second. For a cycle timer, the frequency is generally related to the CPU speed. For example, on a system with a 2.4GHz processor, the CYCLE may be close to 2400000000.

  • TIMER_RESOLUTION

    Indicates the number of timer units by which timer values increase. If a timer has a resolution of 10, its value increases by 10 each time.

  • TIMER_OVERHEAD

    The minimal number of cycles of overhead to obtain one timing with the given timer. The Performance Schema determines this value by invoking the timer 20 times during initialization and picking the smallest value. The total overhead really is twice this amount because the instrumentation invokes the timer at the start and end of each event. The timer code is called only for timed events, so this overhead does not apply for nontimed events.

22.7.6.2 The threads Table

The threads table contains a row for each server thread:

mysql> SELECT * FROM threads;
+-----------+----------------+----------------------------------------+
| THREAD_ID | PROCESSLIST_ID | NAME                                   |
+-----------+----------------+----------------------------------------+
|         0 |              0 | thread/sql/main                        |
|         1 |              0 | thread/innodb/io_handler_thread        |
|        16 |              0 | thread/sql/signal_handler              |
|        23 |              7 | thread/sql/one_connection              |
|         5 |              0 | thread/innodb/io_handler_thread        |
|        12 |              0 | thread/innodb/srv_lock_timeout_thread  |
|        22 |              6 | thread/sql/one_connection              |
...
Note

For INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST and SHOW PROCESSLIST, information about threads for other users is shown only if the current user has the PROCESS privilege. That is not true of the threads table; all rows are shown to any user who has the SELECT privilege for the table. Users who should not be able to see threads for other users should not be given that privilege.

The threads table has these columns:

  • THREAD_ID

    This is the unique identifier of an instrumented thread.

  • PROCESSLIST_ID

    For threads that are displayed in the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST table, this is the same value displayed in the ID column of that table. It is also the value displayed in the Id column of SHOW PROCESSLIST output, and the value that CONNECTION_ID() would return within that thread.

    For background threads (threads not associated with a user connection), PROCESSLIST_ID is 0, so the values are not unique.

    This column was named ID before MySQL 5.5.8.

  • NAME

    NAME is the name associated with the instrumentation of the code in the server. For example, thread/sql/one_connection corresponds to the thread function in the code responsible for handling a user connection, and thread/sql/main stands for the main() function of the server.

The threads table was named PROCESSLIST before MySQL 5.5.6.

22.8 Performance Schema Option and Variable Reference

Table 22.2 Performance Schema Variable Reference

NameCmd-LineOption FileSystem VarStatus VarVar ScopeDynamic
performance_schemaYesYesYes GlobalNo
Performance_schema_cond_classes_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_cond_instances_lost   YesGlobalNo
performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_sizeYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_events_waits_history_sizeYesYesYes GlobalNo
Performance_schema_file_classes_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_file_handles_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_file_instances_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_locker_lost   YesGlobalNo
performance_schema_max_cond_classesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_cond_instancesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_file_classesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_file_handlesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_file_instancesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_mutex_classesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_mutex_instancesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_rwlock_classesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_rwlock_instancesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_table_handlesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_table_instancesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_thread_classesYesYesYes GlobalNo
performance_schema_max_thread_instancesYesYesYes GlobalNo
Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_mutex_instances_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_rwlock_classes_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_rwlock_instances_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_table_handles_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_table_instances_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_thread_classes_lost   YesGlobalNo
Performance_schema_thread_instances_lost   YesGlobalNo

22.9 Performance Schema System Variables

The Performance Schema implements several system variables that provide configuration information:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'perf%';
+---------------------------------------------------+---------+
| Variable_name                                     | Value   |
+---------------------------------------------------+---------+
| performance_schema                                | ON      |
| performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size | 10000   |
| performance_schema_events_waits_history_size      | 10      |
| performance_schema_max_cond_classes               | 80      |
| performance_schema_max_cond_instances             | 1000    |
| performance_schema_max_file_classes               | 50      |
| performance_schema_max_file_handles               | 32768   |
| performance_schema_max_file_instances             | 10000   |
| performance_schema_max_mutex_classes              | 200     |
| performance_schema_max_mutex_instances            | 1000000 |
| performance_schema_max_rwlock_classes             | 30      |
| performance_schema_max_rwlock_instances           | 1000000 |
| performance_schema_max_table_handles              | 100000  |
| performance_schema_max_table_instances            | 50000   |
| performance_schema_max_thread_classes             | 50      |
| performance_schema_max_thread_instances           | 1000    |
+---------------------------------------------------+---------+

Performance Schema system variables can be set at server startup on the command line or in option files, and many can be set at runtime. See Section 22.8, “Performance Schema Option and Variable Reference”.

Performance Schema system variables have the following meanings:

22.10 Performance Schema Status Variables

The Performance Schema implements several status variables that provide information about instrumentation that could not be loaded or created due to memory constraints:

mysql> SHOW STATUS LIKE 'perf%';
+------------------------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name                            | Value |
+------------------------------------------+-------+
| Performance_schema_cond_classes_lost     | 0     |
| Performance_schema_cond_instances_lost   | 0     |
| Performance_schema_file_classes_lost     | 0     |
| Performance_schema_file_handles_lost     | 0     |
| Performance_schema_file_instances_lost   | 0     |
| Performance_schema_locker_lost           | 0     |
| Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost    | 0     |
| Performance_schema_mutex_instances_lost  | 0     |
| Performance_schema_rwlock_classes_lost   | 0     |
| Performance_schema_rwlock_instances_lost | 0     |
| Performance_schema_table_handles_lost    | 0     |
| Performance_schema_table_instances_lost  | 0     |
| Performance_schema_thread_classes_lost   | 0     |
| Performance_schema_thread_instances_lost | 0     |
+------------------------------------------+-------+

Performance Schema status variables have the following meanings:

  • Performance_schema_cond_classes_lost

    How many condition instruments could not be loaded.

  • Performance_schema_cond_instances_lost

    How many condition instrument instances could not be created.

  • Performance_schema_file_classes_lost

    How many file instruments could not be loaded.

  • Performance_schema_file_handles_lost

    How many file instrument instances could not be opened.

  • Performance_schema_file_instances_lost

    How many file instrument instances could not be created.

  • Performance_schema_locker_lost

    How many events are lost or not recorded, due to the following conditions:

    • Events are recursive (for example, waiting for A caused a wait on B, which caused a wait on C).

    • The depth of the nested events stack is greater than the limit imposed by the implementation.

    Currently, events recorded by the Performance Schema are not recursive, so this variable should always be 0.

  • Performance_schema_mutex_classes_lost

    How many mutex instruments could not be loaded.

  • Performance_schema_mutex_instances_lost

    How many mutex instrument instances could not be created.

  • Performance_schema_rwlock_classes_lost

    How many rwlock instruments could not be loaded.

  • Performance_schema_rwlock_instances_lost

    How many rwlock instrument instances could not be created.

  • Performance_schema_table_handles_lost

    How many table instrument instances could not be opened.

  • Performance_schema_table_instances_lost

    How many table instrument instances could not be created.

  • Performance_schema_thread_classes_lost

    How many thread instruments could not be loaded.

  • Performance_schema_thread_instances_lost

    The number of thread instances that could not be instrumented in the threads table. This can be nonzero if the value of performance_schema_max_thread_instances is too small.

For information on using these variables to check Performance Schema status, see Section 22.5, “Performance Schema Status Monitoring”.

22.11 Performance Schema and Plugins

Removing a plugin with UNINSTALL PLUGIN does not affect information already collected for code in that plugin. Time spent executing the code while the plugin was loaded was still spent even if the plugin is unloaded later. The associated event information, including aggregate information, remains readable in performance_schema database tables. For additional information about the effect of plugin installation and removal, see Section 22.5, “Performance Schema Status Monitoring”.

A plugin implementor who instruments plugin code should document its instrumentation characteristics to enable those who load the plugin to account for its requirements. For example, a third-party storage engine should include in its documentation how much memory the engine needs for mutex and other instruments.

22.12 Using the Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems

The Performance Schema is a tool to help a DBA do performance tuning by taking real measurements instead of wild guesses. This section demonstrates some ways to use the Performance Schema for this purpose. The discussion here relies on the use of event filtering, which is described in Section 22.2.3.2, “Performance Schema Event Filtering”.

The following example provides one methodology that you can use to analyze a repeatable problem, such as investigating a performance bottleneck. To begin, you should have a repeatable use case where performance is deemed too slow and needs optimization, and you should enable all instrumentation (no pre-filtering at all).

  1. Run the use case.

  2. Using the Performance Schema tables, analyze the root cause of the performance problem. This analysis will rely heavily on post-filtering.

  3. For problem areas that are ruled out, disable the corresponding instruments. For example, if analysis shows that the issue is not related to file I/O in a particular storage engine, disable the file I/O instruments for that engine. Then truncate the history and summary tables to remove previously collected events.

  4. Repeat the process at step 1.

    At each iteration, the Performance Schema output, particularly the events_waits_history_long table, will contain less and less noise caused by nonsignificant instruments, and given that this table has a fixed size, will contain more and more data relevant to the analysis of the problem at hand.

    At each iteration, investigation should lead closer and closer to the root cause of the problem, as the signal/noise ratio will improve, making analysis easier.

  5. Once a root cause of performance bottleneck is identified, take the appropriate corrective action, such as:

    • Tune the server parameters (cache sizes, memory, and so forth).

    • Tune a query by writing it differently,

    • Tune the database schema (tables, indexes, and so forth).

    • Tune the code (this applies to storage engine or server developers only).

  6. Start again at step 1, to see the effects of the changes on performance.

The mutex_instances.LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID and rwlock_instances.WRITE_LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID columns are extremely important for investigating performance bottlenecks or deadlocks. This is made possible by Performance Schema instrumentation as follows:

  1. Suppose that thread 1 is stuck waiting for a mutex.

  2. You can determine what the thread is waiting for:

    SELECT * FROM events_waits_current WHERE THREAD_ID = thread_1;
    

    Say the query result identifies that the thread is waiting for mutex A, found in events_waits_current.OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN.

  3. You can determine which thread is holding mutex A:

    SELECT * FROM mutex_instances WHERE OBJECT_INSTANCE_BEGIN = mutex_A;
    

    Say the query result identifies that it is thread 2 holding mutex A, as found in mutex_instances.LOCKED_BY_THREAD_ID.

  4. You can see what thread 2 is doing:

    SELECT * FROM events_waits_current WHERE THREAD_ID = thread_2;